EC 1.14.99.31      
Transferred entry: myristoyl-CoA 11-(E) desaturase. Now classified as EC 1.14.19.24, myristoyl-CoA 11-(E) desaturase
[EC 1.14.99.31 created 2000, deleted 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.32      
Transferred entry: myristoyl-CoA 11-(Z) desaturase. Now classified as EC 1.14.19.5, acyl-CoA 11-(Z)-desaturase.
[EC 1.14.99.32 created 2000, deleted 2015]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.97     
Accepted name: glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase
Reaction: tetradecanoyl-CoA + an N-terminal-glycyl-[protein] = CoA + an N-terminal-N-tetradecanoylglycyl-[protein]
Glossary: tetradecanoyl-CoA = myristoyl-CoA
Other name(s): NMT (gene name); peptide N-myristoyltransferase; myristoyl-CoA-protein N-myristoyltransferase; myristoyl-coenzyme A:protein N-myristoyl transferase; myristoylating enzymes; protein N-myristoyltransferase; tetradecanoyl-CoA:glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase
Systematic name: tetradecanoyl-CoA:N-terminal-glycine-[protein] N-tetradecanoyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the transfer of myristic acid from myristoyl-CoA to the amino group of the N-terminal glycine residue in a variety of eukaryotic proteins. It uses an ordered Bi Bi reaction in which myristoyl-CoA binds to the enzyme prior to the binding of the peptide substrate, and CoA release precedes the release of the myristoylated peptide. The enzyme from yeast is profoundly affected by amino acids further from the N-terminus, and is particularly stimulated by a serine residue at position 5.
References:
1.  Guertin, D., Gris-Miron, L. and Riendeau, D. Identification of a 51-kilodalton polypeptide fatty acyl chain acceptor in soluble extracts from mouse cardiac tissue. Biochem. Cell Biol. 64 (1986) 1249–1255. [PMID: 3566958]
2.  Heuckeroth, R.O., Towler, D.A., Adams, S.P., Glaser, L. and Gordon, J.I. 11-(Ethylthio)undecanoic acid. A myristic acid analogue of altered hydrophobicity which is functional for peptide N-myristoylation with wheat germ and yeast acyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 2127–2133. [PMID: 3123489]
3.  Towler, D.A., Adams, S.P., Eubanks, S.R., Towery, D.S., Jackson-Machelski, E., Glaser, L. and Gordon, J.I. Purification and characterization of yeast myristoyl CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84 (1987) 2708–2712. [PMID: 3106975]
4.  McIlhinney, R.A., Young, K., Egerton, M., Camble, R., White, A. and Soloviev, M. Characterization of human and rat brain myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase: evidence for an alternative splice variant of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 333 (1998) 491–495. [PMID: 9677304]
5.  Farazi, T.A., Waksman, G. and Gordon, J.I. Structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae N-myristoyltransferase with bound myristoylCoA and peptide provide insights about substrate recognition and catalysis. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 6335–6343. [PMID: 11371195]
[EC 2.3.1.97 created 1989, modified 1990, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.129     
Accepted name: acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase
Reaction: a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = an [acyl-carrier protein] + a UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine
Other name(s): lpxA (gene name); UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine acyltransferase; acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase; (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)transferase
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)transferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.4.1.182, lipid-A-disaccharide synthase, and EC 2.7.1.130, tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase, in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, Lipid A, in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
References:
1.  Anderson, M.S., Bulawa, C.E. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A precursors from UDP-GlcNAc in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 15536–15541. [PMID: 3905795]
2.  Anderson, M.S., Bull, H.G., Galloway, S.M., Kelly, T.M., Mohan, S., Radika, K. and Raetz, C.R. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase of Escherichia coli. The first step of endotoxin biosynthesis is thermodynamically unfavorable. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 19858–19865. [PMID: 8366124]
3.  Raetz, C.R. and Roderick, S.L. A left-handed parallel β helix in the structure of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase. Science 270 (1995) 997–1000. [PMID: 7481807]
4.  Williams, A.H. and Raetz, C.R. Structural basis for the acyl chain selectivity and mechanism of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 13543–13550. [PMID: 17698807]
5.  Bainbridge, B.W., Karimi-Naser, L., Reife, R., Blethen, F., Ernst, R.K. and Darveau, R.P. Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid heterogeneity in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 4549–4558. [PMID: 18456814]
[EC 2.3.1.129 created 1990, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.191     
Accepted name: UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase
Reaction: a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + a UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine = a UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
Other name(s): lpxD (gene name); UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; acyltransferase LpxD; acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase; firA (gene name); (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase; UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase; (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. LpxD from Escherichia coli prefers (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] [3], but it does not have an absolute specificity for 14-carbon hydroxy fatty acids, as it can transfer other fatty acids, including odd-chain fatty acids, if they are available to the organism [5].
References:
1.  Kelly, T.M., Stachula, S.A., Raetz, C.R. and Anderson, M.S. The firA gene of Escherichia coli encodes UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase. The third step of endotoxin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 19866–19874. [PMID: 8366125]
2.  Buetow, L., Smith, T.K., Dawson, A., Fyffe, S. and Hunter, W.N. Structure and reactivity of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 4321–4326. [PMID: 17360522]
3.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 5290–5302. [PMID: 18422345]
4.  Bainbridge, B.W., Karimi-Naser, L., Reife, R., Blethen, F., Ernst, R.K. and Darveau, R.P. Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid heterogeneity in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 4549–4558. [PMID: 18456814]
5.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Crystal structure and acyl chain selectivity of Escherichia coli LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 8672–8683. [PMID: 19655786]
6.  Badger, J., Chie-Leon, B., Logan, C., Sridhar, V., Sankaran, B., Zwart, P.H. and Nienaber, V. Structure determination of LpxD from the lipopolysaccharide-synthesis pathway of Acinetobacter baumannii. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 69 (2013) 6–9. [PMID: 23295477]
7.  Kroeck, K.G., Sacco, M.D., Smith, E.W., Zhang, X., Shoun, D., Akhtar, A., Darch, S.E., Cohen, F., Andrews, L.D., Knox, J.E. and Chen, Y. Discovery of dual-activity small-molecule ligands of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LpxA and LpxD using SPR and X-ray crystallography. Sci. Rep. 9:15450 (2019). [PMID: 31664082]
[EC 2.3.1.191 created 2010, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.242     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid IVA palmitoleoyltransferase
Reaction: a (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Kdo2-lipid IVA = (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA + an [acyl-carrier protein]
Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA
(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl = palmitoleoyl
(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{(3R)-3-[(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl]tetradecanamido}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): LpxP; palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent acyltransferase; cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase; palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-palmitoleoyltransferase; (Kdo)2-lipid IVA palmitoleoyltransferase; α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-(2→6)-lipid IVA palmitoleoyltransferase
Systematic name: (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-palmitoleoyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli, is induced upon cold shock and is involved in the formation of a cold-adapted variant of the outer membrane glycolipid lipid A.
References:
1.  Carty, S.M., Sreekumar, K.R. and Raetz, C.R. Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 9677–9685. [PMID: 10092655]
2.  Vorachek-Warren, M.K., Carty, S.M., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. An Escherichia coli mutant lacking the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis: absence of unsaturated acyl chains and antibiotic hypersensitivity at 12 degrees C. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 14186–14193. [PMID: 11830594]
[EC 2.3.1.242 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.243     
Accepted name: acyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA acyltransferase
Reaction: a fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] = an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)2-[lipid IVA] + an [acyl-carrier protein]
Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
a lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] = 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→4)-3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)2-[lipid IVA] = 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→4)-3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): lpxM (gene name); MsbB acyltransferase; myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(dodecanoyl)-lipid IVA O-myristoyltransferase; tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:dodecanoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA O-tetradecanoyltransferase; lauroyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA myristoyltransferase
Systematic name: fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] O-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated outer membrane glycolipid lipid A. It transfers an acyl group to the 3-O position of the 3R-hydroxyacyl already attached at the 2-O position of the non-reducing glucosamine molecule. The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli is specific for myristoyl (C14) acyl groups, giving the enzyme its previous accepted name. However, enzymes from different species accept highly variable substrates.
References:
1.  Clementz, T., Zhou, Z. and Raetz, C.R. Function of the Escherichia coli msbB gene, a multicopy suppressor of htrB knockouts, in the acylation of lipid A. Acylation by MsbB follows laurate incorporation by HtrB. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 10353–10360. [PMID: 9099672]
2.  Dovala, D., Rath, C.M., Hu, Q., Sawyer, W.S., Shia, S., Elling, R.A., Knapp, M.S. and Metzger, L.E., 4th. Structure-guided enzymology of the lipid A acyltransferase LpxM reveals a dual activity mechanism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113 (2016) E6064–E6071. [PMID: 27681620]
[EC 2.3.1.243 created 2014, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.251     
Accepted name: lipid IVA palmitoyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + hexa-acyl lipid A = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + hepta-acyl lipid A
(2) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IIA = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IIB
(3) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IVA = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IVB
Glossary: palmitoyl = hexadecanoyl
hexa-acyl lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
hepta-acyl lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IIA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranose phosphate
lipid IIB = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranose phosphate
lipid IVB = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): PagP; crcA (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:lipid-IVA palmitoyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The enzyme prefers phosphatidylcholine with a palmitoyl group at the sn-1 position and palmitoyl or stearoyl groups at the sn-2 position. There is some activity with corresponding phosphatidylserines but only weak activity with other diacylphosphatidyl compounds. The enzyme also acts on Kdo-(2→4)-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA.
References:
1.  Bishop, R.E., Gibbons, H.S., Guina, T., Trent, M.S., Miller, S.I. and Raetz, C.R. Transfer of palmitate from phospholipids to lipid A in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. EMBO J. 19 (2000) 5071–5080. [PMID: 11013210]
2.  Cuesta-Seijo, J.A., Neale, C., Khan, M.A., Moktar, J., Tran, C.D., Bishop, R.E., Pomes, R. and Prive, G.G. PagP crystallized from SDS/cosolvent reveals the route for phospholipid access to the hydrocarbon ruler. Structure 18 (2010) 1210–1219. [PMID: 20826347]
[EC 2.3.1.251 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.301     
Accepted name: mycobacterial β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase III
Reaction: dodecanoyl-CoA + a malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] = a 3-oxotetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CoA + CO2
Glossary: dodecanoyl-CoA = lauroyl-CoA
Other name(s): fabH (gene name) (ambiguous); mycobacterial 3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase III
Systematic name: dodecanoyl-CoA:malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] C-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from mycobacteria, provides a link between the type I and type II fatty acid synthase systems (FAS-I and FAS-II, respectively) found in these organisms. The enzyme acts on medium- and long-chain acyl-CoAs (C12-C16) produced by the FAS-I system, condensing them with malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] (malonyl-AcpM) and forming starter molecules for the FAS-II system, which elongates them into meromycolic acids. The enzyme has no activity with short-chain acyl-CoAs (e.g. acetyl-CoA), which are used by EC 2.3.1.180, β-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase III, or branched-chain acyl-CoAs, which are used by EC 2.3.1.300, branched-chain β-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase.
References:
1.  Scarsdale, J.N., Kazanina, G., He, X., Reynolds, K.A. and Wright, H.T. Crystal structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 20516–20522. [PMID: 11278743]
2.  Musayev, F., Sachdeva, S., Scarsdale, J.N., Reynolds, K.A. and Wright, H.T. Crystal structure of a substrate complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH) with lauroyl-coenzyme A. J. Mol. Biol. 346 (2005) 1313–1321. [PMID: 15713483]
3.  Brown, A.K., Sridharan, S., Kremer, L., Lindenberg, S., Dover, L.G., Sacchettini, J.C. and Besra, G.S. Probing the mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III mtFabH: factors influencing catalysis and substrate specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 32539–32547. [PMID: 16040614]
4.  Sachdeva, S., Musayev, F.N., Alhamadsheh, M.M., Scarsdale, J.N., Wright, H.T. and Reynolds, K.A. Separate entrance and exit portals for ligand traffic in Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH. Chem. Biol. 15 (2008) 402–412. [PMID: 18420147]
[EC 2.3.1.301 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.182     
Accepted name: lipid-A-disaccharide synthase
Reaction: a UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine + a lipid X = UDP + a lipid A disaccharide
Glossary: a lipid X = 2-N-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate =
2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine
a lipid A disaccharide = a 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): lpxB (gene name); UDP-2,3-bis(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)glucosamine:2,3-bis-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-β-D-glucosaminyl-1-phosphate 2,3-bis(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-glucosaminyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine:2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.3.1.129 (acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase) and EC 2.7.1.130 (tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase) in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, lipid A, in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
References:
1.  Ray, B.L., Painter, G. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A disaccharides from monosaccharide precursors in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 4852–4859. [PMID: 6370995]
2.  Crowell, D.N., Reznikoff, W.S. and Raetz, C.R.H. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli gene for lipid A disaccharide synthase. J. Bacteriol. 169 (1987) 5727–5734. [PMID: 2824445]
3.  Metzger, L.E., 4th and Raetz, C.R. Purification and characterization of the lipid A disaccharide synthase (LpxB) from Escherichia coli, a peripheral membrane protein. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 11559–11571. [PMID: 19883124]
4.  Bohl, T.E., Shi, K., Lee, J.K. and Aihara, H. Crystal structure of lipid A disaccharide synthase LpxB from Escherichia coli. Nat. Commun. 9:377 (2018). [PMID: 29371662]
[EC 2.4.1.182 created 1990, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.43     
Accepted name: lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[4-P-L-Ara4N]-lipid A + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
(2) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + lipid IVA = lipid IIA + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
(3) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = 4′-α-L-Ara4N-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
Glossary: lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
lipid IIA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
4′-α-L-Ara4N-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosy-(1→6)-2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A = lipid A of Escherichia coli = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[4′-P-α-L-Ara4N]-lipid A = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-(4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl)phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): undecaprenyl phosphate-α-L-Ara4N transferase; 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose lipid A transferase; polymyxin resistance protein PmrK; arnT (gene name)
Systematic name: 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-phosphate:lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinopyranosyltransferase
Comments: Integral membrane protein present in the inner membrane of certain Gram negative endobacteria. In strains that do not produce 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), the enzyme adds a single arabinose unit to the 1-phosphate moiety of the tetra-acylated lipid A precursor, lipid IVA. In the presence of a Kdo disaccharide, the enzyme primarily adds an arabinose unit to the 4-phosphate of lipid A molecules. The Salmonella typhimurium enzyme can add arabinose units to both positions.
References:
1.  Trent, M.S., Ribeiro, A.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. An inner membrane enzyme in Salmonella and Escherichia coli that transfers 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose to lipid A: induction on polymyxin-resistant mutants and role of a novel lipid-linked donor. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43122–43131. [PMID: 11535604]
2.  Trent, M.S., Ribeiro, A.A., Doerrler, W.T., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Accumulation of a polyisoprene-linked amino sugar in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli: structural characterization and transfer to lipid A in the periplasm. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43132–43144. [PMID: 11535605]
3.  Zhou, Z., Ribeiro, A.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J., Miller, S.I. and Raetz, C.R. Lipid A modifications in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium: PMRA-dependent 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, and phosphoethanolamine incorporation. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43111–43121. [PMID: 11535603]
4.  Bretscher, L.E., Morrell, M.T., Funk, A.L. and Klug, C.S. Purification and characterization of the L-Ara4N transferase protein ArnT from Salmonella typhimurium. Protein Expr. Purif. 46 (2006) 33–39. [PMID: 16226890]
5.  Impellitteri, N.A., Merten, J.A., Bretscher, L.E. and Klug, C.S. Identification of a functionally important loop in Salmonella typhimurium ArnT. Biochemistry 49 (2010) 29–35. [PMID: 19947657]
[EC 2.4.2.43 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.14     
Accepted name: (Kdo)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
Glossary: (Kdo)2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)3-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)2-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase [(2→8) glycosidic bond-forming]
Comments: The enzymes from Chlamydia transfer three or more 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues and generate genus-specific epitopes.
References:
1.  Lobau, S., Mamat, U., Brabetz, W. and Brade, H. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and functional characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene kdtA encoding 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TW-183. Mol. Microbiol. 18 (1995) 391–399. [PMID: 8748024]
2.  Mamat, U., Baumann, M., Schmidt, G. and Brade, H. The genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia is assembled in C. psittaci and C. trachomatis by glycosyltransferases of low homology. Mol. Microbiol. 10 (1993) 935–941. [PMID: 7523826]
3.  Belunis, C.J., Mdluli, K.E., Raetz, C.R. and Nano, F.E. A novel 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from Chlamydia trachomatis required for expression of the genus-specific epitope. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 18702–18707. [PMID: 1382060]
[EC 2.4.99.14 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.15     
Accepted name: (Kdo)3-lipid IVA (2-4) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→8)-[α-Kdo-(2→4)]-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
Glossary: (Kdo)3-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)4-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-[α-Kdo-(2→4)]-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-[(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)]-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)3-lipid IVA (2-4) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)3-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase [(2→4) glycosidic bond-forming]
Comments: The enzyme from Chlamydia psittaci transfers four Kdo residues to lipid A, forming a branched tetrasaccharide with the structure α-Kdo-(2,8)-[α-Kdo-(2,4)]-α-Kdo-(2,4)-α-Kdo (cf. EC 2.4.99.12 [lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase], EC 2.4.99.13 [(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase], and EC 2.4.99.14 [(Kdo)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase]).
References:
1.  Brabetz, W., Lindner, B. and Brade, H. Comparative analyses of secondary gene products of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferases from Chlamydiaceae in Escherichia coli K-12. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 5458–5465. [PMID: 10951204]
2.  Holst, O., Bock, K., Brade, L. and Brade, H. The structures of oligosaccharide bisphosphates isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing the gene gseA [3-deoxy-D-manno-octulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) transferase] of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Eur. J. Biochem. 229 (1995) 194–200. [PMID: 7744029]
[EC 2.4.99.15 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.130     
Accepted name: tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase
Reaction: ATP + a lipid A disaccharide = ADP + a lipid IVA
Glossary: a lipid A disaccharide = a dephospho-lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
a lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): lpxK (gene name); lipid-A 4′-kinase; ATP:2,2′,3,3′-tetrakis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)-α-D-glucosaminyl-phosphate 4′-O-phosphotransferase
Systematic name: ATP:2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose 4′-O-phosphotransferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.3.1.129 (acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase) and EC 2.4.1.182 (lipid-A-disaccharide synthase) in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, lipid A, in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
References:
1.  Ray, B.L. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. A novel kinase in Escherichia coli membranes that incorporates the 4′-phosphate of lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 1122–1128. [PMID: 3027079]
2.  Emptage, R.P., Daughtry, K.D., Pemble, C.W., 4th and Raetz, C.R. Crystal structure of LpxK, the 4′-kinase of lipid A biosynthesis and atypical P-loop kinase functioning at the membrane interface. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109 (2012) 12956–12961. [PMID: 22826246]
3.  Emptage, R.P., Pemble, C.W., 4th, York, J.D., Raetz, C.R. and Zhou, P. Mechanistic characterization of the tetraacyldisaccharide-1-phosphate 4′-kinase LpxK involved in lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 52 (2013) 2280–2290. [PMID: 23464738]
4.  Emptage, R.P., Tonthat, N.K., York, J.D., Schumacher, M.A. and Zhou, P. Structural basis of lipid binding for the membrane-embedded tetraacyldisaccharide-1-phosphate 4′-kinase LpxK. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 24059–24068. [PMID: 25023290]
[EC 2.7.1.130 created 1990, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.166     
Accepted name: 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + ATP = 4-O-phospho-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + ADP
Glossary: (Kdo)-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(4-O-phospho-KDO)-lipid IVA = 4-O-phospho-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-4-O-phosphono-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): kdkA (gene name); Kdo kinase
Systematic name: ATP:(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranose 4-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme phosphorylates the 4-OH position of Kdo in (Kdo)-lipid IVA.
References:
1.  Brabetz, W., Muller-Loennies, S. and Brade, H. 3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase (WaaA) and kdo kinase (KdkA) of Haemophilus influenzae are both required to complement a waaA knockout mutation of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 34954–34962. [PMID: 10952982]
2.  Harper, M., Boyce, J.D., Cox, A.D., St Michael, F., Wilkie, I.W., Blackall, P.J. and Adler, B. Pasteurella multocida expresses two lipopolysaccharide glycoforms simultaneously, but only a single form is required for virulence: identification of two acceptor-specific heptosyl I transferases. Infect. Immun. 75 (2007) 3885–3893. [PMID: 17517879]
3.  White, K.A., Kaltashov, I.A., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A mono-functional 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase and a Kdo kinase in extracts of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 16555–16563. [PMID: 9195966]
4.  White, K.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A Haemophilus influenzae gene that encodes a membrane bound 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) kinase. Possible involvement of kdo phosphorylation in bacterial virulence. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 31391–31400. [PMID: 10531340]
[EC 2.7.1.166 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.29     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid A phosphotransferase
Reaction: ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl diphosphate + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A 1-diphosphate
Glossary: lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A 1-diphosphate =
2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl diphosphate
Other name(s): lipid A undecaprenyl phosphotransferase; LpxT; YeiU
Systematic name: ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl-diphosphate:α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid-A phosphotransferase
Comments: An inner-membrane protein. The activity of the enzyme is regulated by PmrA. In vitro the enzyme can use diacylglycerol 3-diphosphate as the phosphate donor.
References:
1.  Touze, T., Tran, A.X., Hankins, J.V., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. and Trent, M.S. Periplasmic phosphorylation of lipid A is linked to the synthesis of undecaprenyl phosphate. Mol. Microbiol. 67 (2008) 264–277. [PMID: 18047581]
2.  Herrera, C.M., Hankins, J.V. and Trent, M.S. Activation of PmrA inhibits LpxT-dependent phosphorylation of lipid A promoting resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 1444–1460. [PMID: 20384697]
[EC 2.7.4.29 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.30      
Transferred entry: lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase. Now EC 2.7.8.43, lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase
[EC 2.7.4.30 created 2015, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.42     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid A phosphoethanolamine 7′′-transferase
Reaction: (1) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = diacylglycerol + 7-O-[2-aminoethoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]-α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A
(2) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = diacylglycerol + 7-O-[2-aminoethoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]-α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA
Glossary: lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): eptB (gene name)
Systematic name: diacylphosphatidylethanolamine:α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid-A 7′′-phosphoethanolaminetransferase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli. It is activated by Ca2+ ions and is silenced by the sRNA MgrR.
References:
1.  Kanipes, M.I., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Ca2+-induced phosphoethanolamine transfer to the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid moiety of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. A novel membrane enzyme dependent upon phosphatidylethanolamine. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 1156–1163. [PMID: 11042192]
2.  Reynolds, C.M., Kalb, S.R., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A phosphoethanolamine transferase specific for the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid residue of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Identification of the eptB gene and Ca2+ hypersensitivity of an eptB deletion mutant. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 21202–21211. [PMID: 15795227]
3.  Moon, K., Six, D.A., Lee, H.J., Raetz, C.R. and Gottesman, S. Complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of an enzyme for lipopolysaccharide modification. Mol. Microbiol. 89 (2013) 52–64. [PMID: 23659637]
[EC 2.7.8.42 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.43     
Accepted name: lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase
Reaction: (1) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A = diacylglycerol + lipid A 1-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
(2) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A = diacylglycerol + lipid A 4′-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
(3) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A 1-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate) = diacylglycerol + lipid A 1,4′-bis(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
Glossary: lipid A (Campylobacter jejuni) = 2,3-dideoxy-2,3-bis[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Escherichia coli) =
2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Helicobacter pylori) = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(octadecanoyloxy)octadecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxyoctadecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Neisseria meningitidis) =
2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A 1-[(2-aminoethyl) diphosphate] = P1-(2-aminoethyl)
P2-(2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate
lipid A 1,4′-bis(2-aminoethyl diphosphate) = P1-(2-aminoethyl)
P2-(2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-(2-aminoethyldiphospho)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate
Other name(s): lipid A PEA transferase; LptA
Systematic name: diacylphosphatidylethanolamine:lipid-A ethanolaminephosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme adds one or two ethanolamine phosphate groups to lipid A giving a diphosphate, sometimes in combination with EC 2.4.2.43 (lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosyltransferase) giving products with 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose groups at the phosphates of lipid A instead of diphosphoethanolamine groups. It will also act on lipid IVA and Kdo2-lipid A.
References:
1.  Tran, A.X., Karbarz, M.J., Wang, X., Raetz, C.R., McGrath, S.C., Cotter, R.J. and Trent, M.S. Periplasmic cleavage and modification of the 1-phosphate group of Helicobacter pylori lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 55780–55791. [PMID: 15489235]
2.  Herrera, C.M., Hankins, J.V. and Trent, M.S. Activation of PmrA inhibits LpxT-dependent phosphorylation of lipid A promoting resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 1444–1460. [PMID: 20384697]
3.  Cullen, T.W. and Trent, M.S. A link between the assembly of flagella and lipooligosaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 5160–5165. [PMID: 20194750]
4.  Anandan, A., Piek, S., Kahler, C.M. and Vrielink, A. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of an endotoxin-biosynthesis enzyme from Neisseria meningitidis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 68 (2012) 1494–1497. [PMID: 23192031]
5.  Wanty, C., Anandan, A., Piek, S., Walshe, J., Ganguly, J., Carlson, R.W., Stubbs, K.A., Kahler, C.M. and Vrielink, A. The structure of the neisserial lipooligosaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferase A (LptA) required for resistance to polymyxin. J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3389–3402. [PMID: 23810904]
[EC 2.7.8.43 created 2015 as EC 2.7.4.30, transferred 2016 to EC 2.7.8.43]
 
 
EC 3.1.1.51     
Accepted name: phorbol-diester hydrolase
Reaction: phorbol 12,13-dibutanoate + H2O = phorbol 13-butanoate + butanoate
Other name(s): diacylphorbate 12-hydrolase; diacylphorbate 12-hydrolase; phorbol-12,13-diester 12-ester hydrolase; PDEH
Systematic name: 12,13-diacylphorbate 12-acylhydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses the 12-ester bond in a variety of 12,13-diacylphorbols (phorbol is a diterpenoid); this reaction inactivates the tumour promotor 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate from croton oil.
References:
1.  Shoyab, M., Warren, T.C. and Todaro, G.J. Isolation and characterization of an ester hydrolase active on phorbol diesters from murine liver. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 12529–12534. [PMID: 6946062]
[EC 3.1.1.51 created 1984]
 
 
EC 3.6.1.54     
Accepted name: UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine diphosphatase
Reaction: a UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine + H2O = a lipid X + UMP
Glossary: a lipid X = 2-N-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate =
2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine
Other name(s): lpxH (gene name); UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolase; UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine pyrophosphatase; ybbF (gene name); UDP-2,3-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-α-D-glucosamine 2,3-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-β-D-glucosaminyl 1-phosphate phosphohydrolase (incorrect); UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosaminyl 1-phosphate phosphohydrolase
Systematic name: UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step in the biosynthesis of lipid A.
References:
1.  Babinski, K.J., Ribeiro, A.A. and Raetz, C.R. The Escherichia coli gene encoding the UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine pyrophosphatase of lipid A biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 25937–25946. [PMID: 12000770]
2.  Babinski, K.J., Kanjilal, S.J. and Raetz, C.R. Accumulation of the lipid A precursor UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the lpxH gene. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 25947–25956. [PMID: 12000771]
3.  Okada, C., Wakabayashi, H., Kobayashi, M., Shinoda, A., Tanaka, I. and Yao, M. Crystal structures of the UDP-diacylglucosamine pyrophosphohydrase LpxH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sci. Rep. 6:32822 (2016). [PMID: 27609419]
4.  Cho, J., Lee, C.J., Zhao, J., Young, H.E. and Zhou, P. Structure of the essential Haemophilus influenzae UDP-diacylglucosamine pyrophosphohydrolase LpxH in lipid A biosynthesis. Nat Microbiol 1:16154 (2016). [PMID: 27780190]
5.  Arenas, J., Pupo, E., de Jonge, E., Perez-Ortega, J., Schaarschmidt, J., van der Ley, P. and Tommassen, J. Substrate specificity of the pyrophosphohydrolase LpxH determines the asymmetry of Bordetella pertussis lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 294 (2019) 7982–7989. [PMID: 30926608]
[EC 3.6.1.54 created 2010, modified 2021]