The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.2.1.67     
Accepted name: vanillin dehydrogenase
Reaction: vanillin + NAD+ + H2O = vanillate + NADH + 2 H+
Glossary: vanillate = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate
vanillin = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde
Systematic name: vanillin:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 189767-93-9
References:
1.  Pometto, A.L. and Crawford, D.L. Whole-cell bioconversion of vanillin to vanillic acid by Streptomyces viridosporus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45 (1983) 1582–1585. [PMID: 6870241]
[EC 1.2.1.67 created 2000]
 
 
EC 1.2.3.12      
Transferred entry: vanillate demethylase. Now EC 1.14.13.82, vanillate monooxygenase
[EC 1.2.3.12 created 2000, deleted 2003]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.82     
Accepted name: vanillate monooxygenase
Reaction: vanillate + O2 + NADH + H+ = 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NAD+ + H2O + formaldehyde
Glossary: vanillate = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate
Other name(s): 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate demethylase; vanillate demethylase
Systematic name: vanillate:oxygen oxidoreductase (demethylating)
Comments: Forms part of the vanillin degradation pathway in Arthrobacter sp.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 39307-11-4
References:
1.  Brunel, F. and Davison, J. Cloning and sequencing of Pseudomonas genes encoding vanillate demethylase. J. Bacteriol. 170 (1988) 4924–4930. [DOI] [PMID: 3170489]
2.  Priefert, H., Rabenhorst, J. and Steinbuchel, A. Molecular characterization of genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 involved in bioconversion of vanillin to protocatechuate. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 2595–2607. [DOI] [PMID: 9098058]
[EC 1.14.13.82 created 2000 as EC 1.2.3.12, transferred 2003 to EC 1.14.13.82]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.341     
Accepted name: vanillate/3-O-methylgallate O-demethylase
Reaction: (1) vanillate + tetrahydrofolate = protocatechuate + 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
(2) 3-O-methylgallate + tetrahydrofolate = gallate + 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
Glossary: protocatechuate = 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate
vanillate = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate
gallate = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
Other name(s): ligM (gene name)
Systematic name: vanillate:tetrahydrofolate O-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. SYK6, is involved in the degradation of lignin. The enzyme has similar activities with vanillate and 3-O-methylgallate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nishikawa, S., Sonoki, T., Kasahara, T., Obi, T., Kubota, S., Kawai, S., Morohoshi, N. and Katayama, Y. Cloning and sequencing of the Sphingomonas (Pseudomonas) paucimobilis gene essential for the O demethylation of vanillate and syringate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 (1998) 836–842. [PMID: 9501423]
2.  Masai, E., Sasaki, M., Minakawa, Y., Abe, T., Sonoki, T., Miyauchi, K., Katayama, Y. and Fukuda, M. A novel tetrahydrofolate-dependent O-demethylase gene is essential for growth of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 with syringate. J. Bacteriol. 186 (2004) 2757–2765. [DOI] [PMID: 15090517]
3.  Abe, T., Masai, E., Miyauchi, K., Katayama, Y. and Fukuda, M. A tetrahydrofolate-dependent O-demethylase, LigM, is crucial for catabolism of vanillate and syringate in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 2030–2037. [DOI] [PMID: 15743951]
[EC 2.1.1.341 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.136     
Accepted name: gallate 1-β-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-glucose + gallate = UDP + 1-galloyl-β-D-glucose
Other name(s): UDP-glucose—vanillate 1-glucosyltransferase; UDPglucose:vanillate 1-O-glucosyltransferase; UDPglucose:gallate glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-glucose:gallate β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: A number of substituted benzoic acids and, more slowly, cinnamic acids, can act as acceptors. Vanillin is the best acceptor investigated.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 89700-30-1
References:
1.  Gross, G.G. Synthesis of β-glucogallin from UDP-glucose and gallic acid by an enzyme preparation from oak leaves. FEBS Lett. 148 (1982) 67–70.
2.  Gross, G.G. Partial-purification and properties of UDP-glucose-vanillate 1-O-glucosyl transferase from oak leaves. Phytochemistry 22 (1983) 2179–2182.
[EC 2.4.1.136 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.300     
Accepted name: cyanidin 3-O-glucoside 7-O-glucosyltransferase (acyl-glucose)
Reaction: 1-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucose + cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside = vanillate + cyanidin 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucoside
For diagram of anthocyanidin glucoside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: vanillate = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate
cyanidin = 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavylium
Other name(s): AA7GT
Systematic name: 1-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucose:cyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside 7-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Delphinium grandiflorum (delphinium). Also acts on other anthocyanidins and with other acyl-glucose derivatives.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Matsuba, Y., Sasaki, N., Tera, M., Okamura, M., Abe, Y., Okamoto, E., Nakamura, H., Funabashi, H., Takatsu, M., Saito, M., Matsuoka, H., Nagasawa, K. and Ozeki, Y. A novel glucosylation reaction on anthocyanins catalyzed by acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase in the petals of carnation and delphinium. Plant Cell 22 (2010) 3374–3389. [DOI] [PMID: 20971893]
[EC 2.4.1.300 created 2013]
 
 
EC 4.1.2.41      
Transferred entry: vanillin synthase. Now included with EC 4.1.2.61, feruloyl-CoA hydratase/lyase
[EC 4.1.2.41 created 2000, deleted 2019]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.83     
Accepted name: 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase
Reaction: 2-hydroxy-4-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate = (1E,3E)-4-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + H2O
For diagram of the protocatechuate 3,4-cleavage pathway, click here
Other name(s): 4-oxalmesaconate hydratase; 4-carboxy-2-oxohexenedioate hydratase; 4-carboxy-2-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate 2,3-hydro-lyase; oxalmesaconate hydratase; γ-oxalmesaconate hydratase; 2-hydroxy-4-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate 2,3-hydro-lyase; LigJ; GalB
Systematic name: (1E,3E)-4-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate 1,2-hydro-lyase (2-hydroxy-4-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate-forming)
Comments: This enzyme participates in the degradation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (via the meta-cleavage pathway), syringate and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, catalysing the reaction in the opposite direction [1-3]. It accepts the enol-form of 4-oxalomesaconate, 2-hydroxy-4-carboxy-hexa-2,4-dienedioate [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85204-95-1
References:
1.  Maruyama, K. Enzymes responsible for degradation of 4-oxalmesaconic acid in Pseudomonas ochraceae. J. Biochem. 93 (1983) 567–574. [PMID: 6841354]
2.  Maruyama, K. Purification and properties of γ-oxalomesaconate hydratase from Pseudomonas ochraceae grown with phthalate. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 128 (1985) 271–277. [DOI] [PMID: 3985968]
3.  Hara, H., Masai, E., Katayama, Y. and Fukuda, M. The 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase gene, involved in the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway, is essential to vanillate and syringate degradation in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. J. Bacteriol. 182 (2000) 6950–6957. [DOI] [PMID: 11092855]
4.  Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., Serra B., Pingarrón, J. M., García, J. L. and Díaz, E. Unravelling the gallic acid degradation pathway in bacteria: the gal cluster from Pseudomonas putida. Mol. Microbiol. 79 (2011) 359–374. [DOI] [PMID: 21219457]
[EC 4.2.1.83 created 1986, modified 2011]
 
 


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