The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.3.99.39     
Accepted name: carotenoid φ-ring synthase
Reaction: carotenoid β-end group + 2 acceptor = carotenoid φ-end group + 2 reduced acceptor
For diagram of aromatic carotenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: chlorobactene = φ,ψ-carotene
β-isorenieratene = φ,β-carotene
isorenieratene = φ,φ-carotene
Other name(s): crtU (gene name) (ambiguous)
Systematic name: carotenoid β-ring:acceptor oxidoreductase/methyltranferase (φ-ring forming)
Comments: The enzyme, found in green sulfur bacteria, some cyanobacteria and some actinobacteria, introduces additional double bonds to the carotenoid β-end group, leading to aromatization of the ionone ring. As a result, one of the methyl groups at C-1 is transferred to position C-2. It is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids with φ-type aromatic end groups such as chlorobactene, β-isorenieratene, and isorenieratene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Moshier, S.E. and Chapman, D.J. Biosynthetic studies on aromatic carotenoids. Biosynthesis of chlorobactene. Biochem. J. 136 (1973) 395–404. [PMID: 4774401]
2.  Krugel, H., Krubasik, P., Weber, K., Saluz, H.P. and Sandmann, G. Functional analysis of genes from Streptomyces griseus involved in the synthesis of isorenieratene, a carotenoid with aromatic end groups, revealed a novel type of carotenoid desaturase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1439 (1999) 57–64. [PMID: 10395965]
3.  Frigaard, N.U., Maresca, J.A., Yunker, C.E., Jones, A.D. and Bryant, D.A. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. J. Bacteriol. 186 (2004) 5210–5220. [PMID: 15292122]
[EC 1.3.99.39 created 2018]
 
 


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