The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: glutarate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Reaction: 5-oxopentanoate + NAD+ + H2O = glutarate + NADH + 2 H+
Glossary: 5-oxopentanoate = glutarate semialdehyde
Other name(s): glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Systematic name: glutarate-semialdehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-99-3
1.  Ichihara, A. and Ichihara, E.A. Metabolism of L-lysine by bacterial enzymes. V. Glutaric semialdehyde dehydrogenase. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 49 (1961) 154–157. [PMID: 13717359]
[EC created 1965]
Accepted name: L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Reaction: L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O = L-glutamate + NADH + H+
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde = L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde = (S)-2-amino-5-oxopentanoate
Other name(s): 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; 1-pyrroline dehydrogenase; pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase; L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase; 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase
Systematic name: L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme catalyses the irreversible oxidation of glutamate-γ-semialdehyde to glutamate as part of the proline degradation pathway. (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, the product of the first enzyme of the pathway (EC, proline dehydrogenase) is in spontaneous equilibrium with its tautomer L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde. In many bacterial species, both activities are carried out by a single bifunctional enzyme [3,4].The enzyme can also oxidize other 1-pyrrolines, e.g. 3-hydroxy-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate is converted into 4-hydroxyglutamate and (R)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate is converted into D-glutamate. NADP+ can also act as acceptor, but with lower activity [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9054-82-4
1.  Adams, E. and Goldstone, A. Hydroxyproline metabolism. IV. Enzymatic synthesis of γ-hydroxyglutamate from Δ1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 3504–3512. [PMID: 13681370]
2.  Strecker, H.J. The interconversion of glutamic acid and proline. III. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 3218–3223.
3.  Forlani, G., Scainelli, D. and Nielsen, E. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from cultured cells of potato (purification and properties). Plant Physiol. 113 (1997) 1413–1418. [PMID: 12223682]
4.  Brown, E.D. and Wood, J.M. Redesigned purification yields a fully functional PutA protein dimer from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 13086–13092. [PMID: 1618807]
5.  Inagaki, E., Ohshima, N., Sakamoto, K., Babayeva, N.D., Kato, H., Yokoyama, S. and Tahirov, T.H. New insights into the binding mode of coenzymes: structure of Thermus thermophilus Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase complexed with NADP+. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 63 (2007) 462–465. [DOI] [PMID: 17554163]
[EC created 1972 as EC, modified 2008, transferred 2013 to EC]
Accepted name: 5-aminovalerate transaminase
Reaction: 5-aminopentanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = 5-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate
Other name(s): 5-aminovalerate aminotransferase; δ-aminovalerate aminotransferase; δ-aminovalerate transaminase
Systematic name: 5-aminopentanoate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37277-97-7
1.  Ichihara, A., Ichihara, E.A. and Suda, M. Metabolism of L-lysine by bacterial enzymes. IV. δ-Aminovaleric acid-glutamic acid transaminase. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 48 (1960) 412–420.
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase
Reaction: L-glutamate 1-semialdehyde = 5-aminolevulinate
For diagram of the early stages of porphyrin biosynthesis, click here and for mechanism of reaction, click here
Glossary: L-glutamate 1-semialdehyde = (S)-4-amino-5-oxopentanoate
Other name(s): glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase
Systematic name: (S)-4-amino-5-oxopentanoate 4,5-aminomutase
Comments: Requires pyridoxal phosphate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 68518-07-0
1.  Gough, S.P. and Kannangara, C.G. Biosynthesis of δ-aminolevulinate in greening barley leaves: glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase. Carlsberg Res. Commun. 43 (1978) 185–194.
[EC created 1983]

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