The Enzyme Database

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Transferred entry: cholesterol 24-hydroxylase. Now EC, cholesterol 24-hydroxylase
[EC created 2005, deleted 2016]
Accepted name: cholesterol 24-hydroxylase
Reaction: cholesterol + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (24S)-cholest-5-ene-3β,24-diol + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of cholic acid biosynthesis (sidechain), click here
Glossary: cholesterol = cholest-5-en-3β-ol
(24S)-24-hydroxycholesterol = (24S)-cholest-5-ene-3β,24-diol
Other name(s): cholesterol 24-monooxygenase; CYP46; CYP46A1; cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase; cytochrome P450 46A1
Systematic name: cholesterol,NADPH—hemoprotein reductase:oxygen oxidoreductase (24-hydroxylating)
Comments: A P-450 heme-thiolate protein. The enzyme can also produce 25-hydroxycholesterol. In addition, it can further hydroxylate the product to 24,25-dihydroxycholesterol and 24,27-dihydroxycholesterol [2]. This reaction is the first step in the enzymic degradation of cholesterol in the brain as hydroxycholesterol can pass the blood—brain barrier whereas cholesterol cannot [3]. The direct electron donor to the enzyme is EC, NADPH—hemoprotein reductase [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 50812-30-1, 213327-78-7
1.  Lund, E.G., Guileyardo, J.M. and Russell, D.W. cDNA cloning of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, a mediator of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 7238–7243. [DOI] [PMID: 10377398]
2.  Bogdanovic, N., Bretillon, L., Lund, E.G., Diczfalusy, U., Lannfelt, L., Winblad, B., Russell, D.W. and Björkhem, I. On the turnover of brain cholesterol in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal induction of the cholesterol-catabolic enzyme CYP46 in glial cells. Neurosci. Lett. 314 (2001) 45–48. [DOI] [PMID: 11698143]
3.  Mast, N., Norcross, R., Andersson, U., Shou, M., Nakayama, K., Bjorkhem, I. and Pikuleva, I.A. Broad substrate specificity of human cytochrome P450 46A1 which initiates cholesterol degradation in the brain. Biochemistry 42 (2003) 14284–14292. [DOI] [PMID: 14640697]
4.  Lund, E.G., Xie, C., Kotti, T., Turley, S.D., Dietschy, J.M. and Russell, D.W. Knockout of the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase gene in mice reveals a brain-specific mechanism of cholesterol turnover. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 22980–22988. [DOI] [PMID: 12686551]
5.  Russell, D.W. The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72 (2003) 137–174. [DOI] [PMID: 12543708]
[EC created 2005 as EC, transferred 2016 to EC]
Accepted name: RCR-type E3 ubiquitin transferase
Reaction: [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-S-ubiquitinyl-L-cysteine + [acceptor protein]-L-threonine = [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine + [acceptor protein]-3-O-ubiquitinyl-L-threonine (overall reaction)
(1a) [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-S-ubiquitinyl-L-cysteine + [RCR-type E3 ubiquitin transferase]-L-cysteine = [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine + [RCR-type E3 ubiquitin transferase]-S-ubiquitinyl-L-cysteine
(1b) [RCR-type E3 ubiquitin transferase]-S-ubiquitinyl-L-cysteine + [acceptor protein]-L-threonine = [RCR-type E3 ubiquitin transferase]-L-cysteine + [acceptor protein]-3-O-ubiquitinyl-L-threonine
Glossary: RCR = RING-Cys-Relay
RING = Really Interesting New Gene
Other name(s): MYCBP2; PHR1
Systematic name: [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-S-ubiquitinyl-L-cysteine:acceptor protein ubiquitin transferase (isopeptide bond-forming; RCR-type)
Comments: RCR-type E3 ubiquitin transferases is a class of RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase (see EC that mediates ubiquitylation of acceptor proteins via an internal cysteine residue. The RING1 domain binds an EC, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and transfers the ubiquitin that is bound to it to an internal cysteine residue on a mediator loop of the RCR-type ligase. The ubiquitin may be transferred to a second internal cysteine before the transfer of the ubiquitin from the RCR-type ligase to the substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Pao, K.C., Wood, N.T., Knebel, A., Rafie, K., Stanley, M., Mabbitt, P.D., Sundaramoorthy, R., Hofmann, K., van Aalten, D.MF. and Virdee, S. Activity-based E3 ligase profiling uncovers an E3 ligase with esterification activity. Nature 556 (2018) 381–385. [PMID: 29643511]
[EC created 2019]

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