The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.13.11.68     
Accepted name: 9-cis-β-carotene 9′,10′-cleaving dioxygenase
Reaction: 9-cis-β-carotene + O2 = 9-cis-10′-apo-β-carotenal + β-ionone
For diagram of strigol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: β-ionone = (3E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)but-3-en-2-one
Other name(s): CCD7 (gene name); MAX3 (gene name); NCED7 (gene name)
Systematic name: 9-cis-β-carotene:oxygen oxidoreductase (9′,10′-cleaving)
Comments: Requires Fe2+. The enzyme participates in a pathway leading to biosynthesis of strigolactones, plant hormones involved in promotion of symbiotic associations known as arbuscular mycorrhiza.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Booker, J., Auldridge, M., Wills, S., McCarty, D., Klee, H. and Leyser, O. MAX3/CCD7 is a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase required for the synthesis of a novel plant signaling molecule. Curr. Biol. 14 (2004) 1232–1238. [DOI] [PMID: 15268852]
2.  Alder, A., Jamil, M., Marzorati, M., Bruno, M., Vermathen, M., Bigler, P., Ghisla, S., Bouwmeester, H., Beyer, P. and Al-Babili, S. The path from β-carotene to carlactone, a strigolactone-like plant hormone. Science 335 (2012) 1348–1351. [DOI] [PMID: 22422982]
[EC 1.13.11.68 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.69     
Accepted name: carlactone synthase
Reaction: 9-cis-10′-apo-β-carotenal + 2 O2 = carlactone + (2E,4E,6E)-7-hydroxy-4-methylhepta-2,4,6-trienal
For diagram of strigol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: carlactone = 3-methyl-5-{[(1Z,3E)-2-methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]oxy}-5H-furan-2-one
Other name(s): CCD8 (gene name); MAX4 (gene name); NCED8 (gene name)
Systematic name: 9-cis-10′-apo-β-carotenal:oxygen oxidoreductase (14,15-cleaving, carlactone-forming)
Comments: Requires Fe2+. The enzyme participates in a pathway leading to biosynthesis of strigolactones, plant hormones involved in promotion of symbiotic associations known as arbuscular mycorrhiza. Also catalyses EC 1.13.11.70, all-trans-10′-apo-β-carotenal 13,14-cleaving dioxygenase, but 10-fold slower.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sorefan, K., Booker, J., Haurogne, K., Goussot, M., Bainbridge, K., Foo, E., Chatfield, S., Ward, S., Beveridge, C., Rameau, C. and Leyser, O. MAX4 and RMS1 are orthologous dioxygenase-like genes that regulate shoot branching in Arabidopsis and pea. Genes Dev. 17 (2003) 1469–1474. [DOI] [PMID: 12815068]
2.  Schwartz, S.H., Qin, X. and Loewen, M.C. The biochemical characterization of two carotenoid cleavage enzymes from Arabidopsis indicates that a carotenoid-derived compound inhibits lateral branching. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 46940–46945. [DOI] [PMID: 15342640]
3.  Alder, A., Jamil, M., Marzorati, M., Bruno, M., Vermathen, M., Bigler, P., Ghisla, S., Bouwmeester, H., Beyer, P. and Al-Babili, S. The path from β-carotene to carlactone, a strigolactone-like plant hormone. Science 335 (2012) 1348–1351. [DOI] [PMID: 22422982]
[EC 1.13.11.69 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.70     
Accepted name: all-trans-10′-apo-β-carotenal 13,14-cleaving dioxygenase
Reaction: all-trans-10′-apo-β-carotenal + O2 = 13-apo-β-carotenone + (2E,4E,6E)-4-methylocta-2,4,6-trienedial
For diagram of 10′-apo-β-carotenal biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): CCD8 (gene name); MAX4 (gene name); NCED8 (gene name); all-trans-10′-apo-β-carotenal:O2 oxidoreductase (13,14-cleaving)
Systematic name: all-trans-10′-apo-β-carotenal:oxygen oxidoreductase (13,14-cleaving)
Comments: Requires Fe2+. The enzyme from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana also catalyses EC 1.13.11.69, carlactone synthase, 10-fold faster.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schwartz, S.H., Qin, X. and Loewen, M.C. The biochemical characterization of two carotenoid cleavage enzymes from Arabidopsis indicates that a carotenoid-derived compound inhibits lateral branching. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 46940–46945. [DOI] [PMID: 15342640]
[EC 1.13.11.70 created 2012]
 
 
EC 5.2.1.14     
Accepted name: β-carotene isomerase
Reaction: all-trans-β-carotene = 9-cis-β-carotene
For diagram of strigol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): DWARF27 (gene name)
Systematic name: β-carotene 9-cis-all-trans isomerase
Comments: The enzyme participates in a pathway leading to biosynthesis of strigolactones, plant hormones involved in promotion of symbiotic associations known as arbuscular mycorrhiza.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lin, H., Wang, R., Qian, Q., Yan, M., Meng, X., Fu, Z., Yan, C., Jiang, B., Su, Z., Li, J. and Wang, Y. DWARF27, an iron-containing protein required for the biosynthesis of strigolactones, regulates rice tiller bud outgrowth. Plant Cell 21 (2009) 1512–1525. [DOI] [PMID: 19470589]
2.  Alder, A., Jamil, M., Marzorati, M., Bruno, M., Vermathen, M., Bigler, P., Ghisla, S., Bouwmeester, H., Beyer, P. and Al-Babili, S. The path from β-carotene to carlactone, a strigolactone-like plant hormone. Science 335 (2012) 1348–1351. [DOI] [PMID: 22422982]
[EC 5.2.1.14 created 2012]
 
 


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