The Enzyme Database

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EC 4.2.3.8     
Accepted name: casbene synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate = casbene + diphosphate
For diagram of the biosynthesis of cembrene and casbene, click here
Other name(s): casbene synthetase; geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing)
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, casbene-forming)
Comments: The enzyme from castor bean (Ricinus communis) produces the antifungal diterpene casbene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 69106-45-2
References:
1.  Moesta, P. and West, C.A. Casbene synthetase: regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in Ricinus communis L. seedlings. Purification of casbene synthetase and regulation of its biosynthesis during elicitation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 238 (1985) 325–333. [DOI] [PMID: 3985625]
[EC 4.2.3.8 created 1989 as EC 4.6.1.7, transferred 2000 to EC 4.2.3.8]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.148     
Accepted name: cembrene C synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate = cembrene C + diphosphate
For diagram of cembrene and related diterpenoids, click here
Glossary: cembrene C = (1E,5E,9E)-1,5,9-trimethyl-12-(propan-2-ylidene)cyclotetradeca-1,5,9-triene
Other name(s): DtcycA (gene name)
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cembrene-C-forming)
Comments: Requires Mg2+. Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SANK 60404. This bifunctional enzyme also produces (R)-nephthenol. See EC 4.2.3.149, nephthenol synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Meguro, A., Tomita, T., Nishiyama, M. and Kuzuyama, T. Identification and characterization of bacterial diterpene cyclases that synthesize the cembrane skeleton. ChemBioChem 14 (2013) 316–321. [DOI] [PMID: 23386483]
[EC 4.2.3.148 created 2014]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.149     
Accepted name: nephthenol synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + H2O = (R)-nephthenol + diphosphate
For diagram of cembrene and related diterpenoids, click here
Glossary: (R)-nephthenol = 2-[(1R,3E,7E,11E)-4,8,12-trimethyltetradeca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl]propan-2-ol
Other name(s): DtcycA (gene name); DtcycB (gene name)
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [(R)-nephthenol-forming]
Comments: Requires Mg2+. Two isozymes with this activity were isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SANK 60404. The enzyme encoded by the DtcycA gene also produces cembrene C (see EC 4.2.3.148, cembrene C synthase), while the enzyme encoded by the DtcycB gene also produces (R)-cembrene A and (1S,4E,8E,12E)-2,2,5,9,13-pentamethylcyclopentadeca-4,8,12-trien-1-ol (see EC 4.2.3.150, cembrene A synthase, and EC 4.2.3.151, pentamethylcyclopentadecatrienol synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Meguro, A., Tomita, T., Nishiyama, M. and Kuzuyama, T. Identification and characterization of bacterial diterpene cyclases that synthesize the cembrane skeleton. ChemBioChem 14 (2013) 316–321. [DOI] [PMID: 23386483]
[EC 4.2.3.149 created 2014]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.150     
Accepted name: cembrene A synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate = (R)-cembrene A + diphosphate
For diagram of cembrene and related diterpenoids, click here
Glossary: cembrene A = (1E,5E,9E,12R)-1,5,9-trimethyl-12-(propan-2-en-2-yl)cyclotetradeca-1,5,9-triene
Other name(s): DtcycB (gene name)
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [(R)-cembrene-A-forming]
Comments: Requires Mg2+. Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SANK 60404. This trifunctional enzyme, which contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster, also produces (R)-nephthenol and (1S,4E,8E,12E)-2,2,5,9,13-pentamethylcyclopentadeca-4,8,12-trien-1-ol. See EC 4.2.3.149, nephthenol synthase and EC 4.2.3.151, pentamethylcyclopentadecatrienol synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Meguro, A., Tomita, T., Nishiyama, M. and Kuzuyama, T. Identification and characterization of bacterial diterpene cyclases that synthesize the cembrane skeleton. ChemBioChem 14 (2013) 316–321. [DOI] [PMID: 23386483]
[EC 4.2.3.150 created 2014]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.151     
Accepted name: pentamethylcyclopentadecatrienol synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + H2O = (1S,4E,8E,12E)-2,2,5,9,13-pentamethylcyclopentadeca-4,8,12-trien-1-ol + diphosphate
For diagram of cembrene and related diterpenoids, click here
Other name(s): DtcycB (gene name)
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [(1S,4E,8E,12E)-2,2,5,9,13-pentamethylcyclopentadeca-4,8,12-trien-1-ol-forming]
Comments: Requires Mg2+. Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SANK 60404. This trifunctional enzyme, which contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster, also produces (R)-nephthenol and (R)-cembrene A. See EC 4.2.3.150, cembrene A synthase and EC 4.2.3.149, nephthenol synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Meguro, A., Tomita, T., Nishiyama, M. and Kuzuyama, T. Identification and characterization of bacterial diterpene cyclases that synthesize the cembrane skeleton. ChemBioChem 14 (2013) 316–321. [DOI] [PMID: 23386483]
[EC 4.2.3.151 created 2014]
 
 


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