The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.13.11.42      
Deleted entry:  indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase. The enzyme was identical to EC 1.13.11.11, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
[EC 1.13.11.42 created 1992, deleted 2006]
 
 
EC 1.14.16.4     
Accepted name: tryptophan 5-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-tryptophan + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
For diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): L-tryptophan hydroxylase; indoleacetic acid-5-hydroxylase; tryptophan 5-hydroxylase; tryptophan hydroxylase
Systematic name: L-tryptophan,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating)
Comments: The active centre contains mononuclear iron(II). The enzyme is activated by phosphorylation, catalysed by a Ca2+-activated protein kinase. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9037-21-2
References:
1.  Friedman, P.A., Kappelman, A.H. and Kaufman, S. Partial purification and characterization of tryptophan hydroxylase from rabbit hindbrain. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 4165–4173. [PMID: 4402511]
2.  Hamon, M., Bourgoin, S., Artaud, F. and Glowinski, J. The role of intraneuronal 5-HT and of tryptophan hydroxylase activation in the control of 5-HT synthesis in rat brain slices incubated in K+-enriched medium. J. Neurochem. 33 (1979) 1031–1042. [DOI] [PMID: 315449]
3.  Ichiyama, A., Nakamura, S., Nishizuka, Y. and Hayaishi, O. Enzymic studies on the biosynthesis of serotonin in mammalian brain. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 1699–1709. [PMID: 5309585]
4.  Jequier, E., Robinson, B.S., Lovenberg, W. and Sjoerdsma, A. Further studies on tryptophan hydroxylase in rat brainstem and beef pineal. Biochem. Pharmacol. 18 (1969) 1071–1081. [DOI] [PMID: 5789774]
5.  Wang, L., Erlandsen, H., Haavik, J., Knappskog, P.M. and Stevens, R.C. Three-dimensional structure of human tryptophan hydroxylase and its implications for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 12569–12574. [DOI] [PMID: 12379098]
[EC 1.14.16.4 created 1972, modified 2003, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.4     
Accepted name: acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N-acetylserotonin = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + melatonin
Glossary: melatonin = N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
serotonin = 5-hydroxytryptamine
tryptamine = 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine
Other name(s): hydroxyindole methyltransferase; hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase; N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase; acetylserotonin methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase
Comments: Some other hydroxyindoles also act as acceptor, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9029-77-0
References:
1.  Axelrod, J. and Weissbach, H. Purification and properties of hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 211–213. [PMID: 13685335]
[EC 2.1.1.4 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.87     
Accepted name: aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
Other name(s): serotonin acetyltransferase; serotonin acetylase; arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase; serotonin N-acetyltransferase; AANAT; melatonin rhythm enzyme
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:2-arylethylamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: Narrow specificity towards 2-arylethylamines, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), tryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine and phenylethylamine. This is the penultimate enzyme in the production of melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) and controls its synthesis (cf. EC 2.1.1.4, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase). Differs from EC 2.3.1.5 arylamine N-acetyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 92941-56-5
References:
1.  Voisin, P., Namboodiri, M.A.A. and Klein, D.C. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in the mammalian pineal gland. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 10913–10918. [PMID: 6469990]
2.  Ferry, G., Loynel, A., Kucharczyk, N., Bertin, S., Rodriguez, M., Delagrange, P., Galizzi, J.P., Jacoby, E., Volland, J.P., Lesieur, D., Renard, P., Canet, E., Fauchere, J.L. and Boutin, J.A. Substrate specificity and inhibition studies of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 8794–8805. [DOI] [PMID: 10722724]
3.  Khalil, E.M. and Cole, P.A. A potent inhibitor of the melatonin rhythm enzyme. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 (1998) 6195–6196.
[EC 2.3.1.87 created 1986, modified 2005]
 
 
EC 3.5.1.76     
Accepted name: arylalkyl acylamidase
Reaction: N-acetylarylalkylamine + H2O = arylalkylamine + acetate
Other name(s): aralkyl acylamidase
Systematic name: N-acetylarylalkylamine amidohydrolase
Comments: Identified in Pseudomonas putida. Strict specificity for N-acetyl arylalkylamines, including N-acetyl-2-phenylethylamine, N-acetyl-3-phenylpropylamine, N-acetyldopamine, N-acetyl-serotonin and melatonin. It also accepts arylalkyl acetates but not acetanilide derivatives, which are common substrates of EC 3.5.1.13, aryl acylamidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Shimizu, S., Ogawa, J., Chung, M.C.-M., Yamada, H. Purification and characterization of a novel enzyme, arylalkyl acylamidase, from Pseudomonas putida Sc2. Eur. J. Biochem. 209 (1992) 375–382. [DOI] [PMID: 1396711]
[EC 3.5.1.76 created 1999]
 
 


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