The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.3.1.101     
Accepted name: 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase [NAD(P)H]
Reaction: 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate + 8 NAD(P)+ = 2,3-bis-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate + 8 NAD(P)H + 8 H+
For diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: phytanol = (7R,11R,15R)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecan-1-ol
Other name(s): digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase; Ta0516m (gene name); DGGGPL reductase; 2,3-digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase
Systematic name: 2,3-bis-(O-phytany)l-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum is involved in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids. In vivo the reaction occurs in the reverse direction with the formation of 2,3-bis-O-phytanyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate. cf. EC 1.3.7.11, 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipid reductase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nishimura, Y. and Eguchi, T. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids: digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. J. Biochem. 139 (2006) 1073–1081. [DOI] [PMID: 16788058]
2.  Nishimura, Y. and Eguchi, T. Stereochemistry of reduction in digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids from Thermoplasma acidophilum. Bioorg. Chem. 35 (2007) 276–283. [DOI] [PMID: 17275067]
3.  Xu, Q., Eguchi, T., Mathews, I.I., Rife, C.L., Chiu, H.J., Farr, C.L., Feuerhelm, J., Jaroszewski, L., Klock, H.E., Knuth, M.W., Miller, M.D., Weekes, D., Elsliger, M.A., Deacon, A.M., Godzik, A., Lesley, S.A. and Wilson, I.A. Insights into substrate specificity of geranylgeranyl reductases revealed by the structure of digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase, an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. J. Mol. Biol. 404 (2010) 403–417. [DOI] [PMID: 20869368]
[EC 1.3.1.101 created 2013]
 
 
EC 1.3.7.11     
Accepted name: 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipid reductase
Reaction: a 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid + 16 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = a 2,3-bis-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid + 16 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 16 H+
For diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: phytanol = 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecan-1-ol
Other name(s): AF0464 (gene name); 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase (donor)
Systematic name: 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. It catalyses the reduction of all 8 double bonds in 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipids and all 4 double bonds in 3-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol phospholipids with comparable activity. Unlike EC 1.3.1.101, 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase [NAD(P)H], this enzyme shows no activity with NADPH, and requires a dedicated ferredoxin [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Murakami, M., Shibuya, K., Nakayama, T., Nishino, T., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Geranylgeranyl reductase involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. FEBS J. 274 (2007) 805–814. [DOI] [PMID: 17288560]
2.  Sato, S., Murakami, M., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Specific partial reduction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate by an enzyme from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius yields a reactive prenyl donor, not a dead-end product. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 3923–3929. [DOI] [PMID: 18375567]
3.  Sasaki, D., Fujihashi, M., Iwata, Y., Murakami, M., Yoshimura, T., Hemmi, H. and Miki, K. Structure and mutation analysis of archaeal geranylgeranyl reductase. J. Mol. Biol. 409 (2011) 543–557. [DOI] [PMID: 21515284]
4.  Isobe, K., Ogawa, T., Hirose, K., Yokoi, T., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Geranylgeranyl reductase and ferredoxin from Methanosarcina acetivorans are required for the synthesis of fully reduced archaeal membrane lipid in Escherichia coli cells. J. Bacteriol. 196 (2014) 417–423. [DOI] [PMID: 24214941]
[EC 1.3.7.11 created 2013 as EC 1.3.99.34, transferred 2015 to EC 1.3.7.11 ]
 
 
EC 1.3.99.34      
Transferred entry: 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase (donor). Now classified as EC 1.3.7.11, 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipid reductase.
[EC 1.3.99.34 created 2013, deleted 2015]
 
 


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