The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.4.3.4     
Accepted name: monoamine oxidase
Reaction: RCH2NHR′ + H2O + O2 = RCHO + R′NH2 + H2O2
Other name(s): adrenalin oxidase; adrenaline oxidase; amine oxidase (ambiguous); amine oxidase (flavin-containing); amine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) (flavin-containing); epinephrine oxidase; MAO; MAO A; MAO B; MAO-A; MAO-B; monoamine oxidase A; monoamine oxidase B; monoamine:O2 oxidoreductase (deaminating); polyamine oxidase (ambiguous); serotonin deaminase; spermidine oxidase (ambiguous); spermine oxidase (ambiguous); tyraminase; tyramine oxidase
Systematic name: amine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating)
Comments: A mitochondrial outer-membrane flavoprotein (FAD) that catalyses the oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters and biogenic amines [3]. Acts on primary amines, and also on some secondary and tertiary amines. It differs from EC 1.4.3.21, primary-amine oxidase as it can oxidize secondary and tertiary amines but not methylamine. This enzyme is inhibited by acetylenic compounds such as chlorgyline, 1-deprenyl and pargyline but, unlike EC 1.4.3.21 and EC 1.4.3.22 (diamine oxidase), it is not inhibited by semicarbazide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9001-66-5
References:
1.  Blaschko, H. Amine oxidase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 8, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 337–351.
2.  Dostert, P.L., Strolin Benedetti, M. and Tipton, K.F. Interactions of monoamine oxidase with substrates and inhibitors. Med. Res. Rev. 9 (1989) 45–89. [DOI] [PMID: 2644497]
3.  Edmondson, D.E., Mattevi, A., Binda, C., Li, M. and Hubálek, F. Structure and mechanism of monoamine oxidase. Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (2004) 1983–1993. [PMID: 15279562]
4.  Shih, J.C. and Chen, K. Regulation of MAO-A and MAO-B gene expression. Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (2004) 1995–2005. [PMID: 15279563]
5.  Tipton, K.F., Boyce, S., O'Sullivan, J., Davey, G.P. and Healy, J. Monoamine oxidases: certainties and uncertainties. Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (2004) 1965–1982. [PMID: 15279561]
6.  De Colibus, L., Li, M., Binda, C., Lustig, A., Edmondson, D.E. and Mattevi, A. Three-dimensional structure of human monoamine oxidase A (MAO A): relation to the structures of rat MAO A and human MAO B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 12684–12689. [DOI] [PMID: 16129825]
7.  Youdim, M.B., Edmondson, D. and Tipton, K.F. The therapeutic potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7 (2006) 295–309. [DOI] [PMID: 16552415]
8.  Youdim, M.B. and Bakhle, Y.S. Monoamine oxidase: isoforms and inhibitors in Parkinson′s disease and depressive illness. Br. J. Pharmacol. 147 Suppl. 1 (2006) S287–S296. [DOI] [PMID: 16402116]
[EC 1.4.3.4 created 1961, modified 1983 (EC 1.4.3.9 created 1972, incorporated 1984), modified 2008]
 
 
EC 1.14.16.4     
Accepted name: tryptophan 5-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-tryptophan + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
For diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): L-tryptophan hydroxylase; indoleacetic acid-5-hydroxylase; tryptophan 5-hydroxylase; tryptophan hydroxylase
Systematic name: L-tryptophan,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating)
Comments: The active centre contains mononuclear iron(II). The enzyme is activated by phosphorylation, catalysed by a Ca2+-activated protein kinase. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9037-21-2
References:
1.  Friedman, P.A., Kappelman, A.H. and Kaufman, S. Partial purification and characterization of tryptophan hydroxylase from rabbit hindbrain. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 4165–4173. [PMID: 4402511]
2.  Hamon, M., Bourgoin, S., Artaud, F. and Glowinski, J. The role of intraneuronal 5-HT and of tryptophan hydroxylase activation in the control of 5-HT synthesis in rat brain slices incubated in K+-enriched medium. J. Neurochem. 33 (1979) 1031–1042. [DOI] [PMID: 315449]
3.  Ichiyama, A., Nakamura, S., Nishizuka, Y. and Hayaishi, O. Enzymic studies on the biosynthesis of serotonin in mammalian brain. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 1699–1709. [PMID: 5309585]
4.  Jequier, E., Robinson, B.S., Lovenberg, W. and Sjoerdsma, A. Further studies on tryptophan hydroxylase in rat brainstem and beef pineal. Biochem. Pharmacol. 18 (1969) 1071–1081. [DOI] [PMID: 5789774]
5.  Wang, L., Erlandsen, H., Haavik, J., Knappskog, P.M. and Stevens, R.C. Three-dimensional structure of human tryptophan hydroxylase and its implications for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 12569–12574. [DOI] [PMID: 12379098]
[EC 1.14.16.4 created 1972, modified 2003, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.4     
Accepted name: acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N-acetylserotonin = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + melatonin
Glossary: melatonin = N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
serotonin = 5-hydroxytryptamine
tryptamine = 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine
Other name(s): hydroxyindole methyltransferase; hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase; N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase; acetylserotonin methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase
Comments: Some other hydroxyindoles also act as acceptor, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9029-77-0
References:
1.  Axelrod, J. and Weissbach, H. Purification and properties of hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 211–213. [PMID: 13685335]
[EC 2.1.1.4 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.5     
Accepted name: arylamine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + an arylamine = CoA + an N-acetylarylamine
Other name(s): arylamine acetylase; β-naphthylamine N-acetyltransferase; 4-aminobiphenyl N-acetyltransferase; acetyl CoA-arylamine N-acetyltransferase; 2-naphthylamine N-acetyltransferase; arylamine acetyltransferase; indoleamine N-acetyltransferase; N-acetyltransferase (ambiguous); p-aminosalicylate N-acetyltransferase; serotonin acetyltransferase; serotonin N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: Wide specificity for aromatic amines, including serotonin; also catalyses acetyl-transfer between arylamines without CoA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9027-33-2
References:
1.  Chou, T.C. and Lipmann, F. Separation of acetyl transfer enzymes in pigeon liver extract. J. Biol. Chem. 196 (1952) 89–103. [PMID: 12980945]
2.  Paul, R.C. and Ratledge, C. Further studies on anthranilate N-acetylanthranilic acid in Aerobacter aerogenes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 320 (1973) 9–15. [DOI] [PMID: 4748369]
3.  Tabor, H., Mehler, A.H. and Stadtman, E.R. The enzymatic acetylation of amines. J. Biol. Chem. 204 (1953) 127–138. [PMID: 13084583]
4.  Weissbach, H., Redfield, B.G. and Axelrod, J. The enzymic acetylation of serotonin and other naturally occurring amines. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 54 (1961) 190–192. [DOI] [PMID: 14005907]
[EC 2.3.1.5 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.87     
Accepted name: aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
Other name(s): serotonin acetyltransferase; serotonin acetylase; arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase; serotonin N-acetyltransferase; AANAT; melatonin rhythm enzyme
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:2-arylethylamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: Narrow specificity towards 2-arylethylamines, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), tryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine and phenylethylamine. This is the penultimate enzyme in the production of melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) and controls its synthesis (cf. EC 2.1.1.4, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase). Differs from EC 2.3.1.5 arylamine N-acetyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 92941-56-5
References:
1.  Voisin, P., Namboodiri, M.A.A. and Klein, D.C. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in the mammalian pineal gland. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 10913–10918. [PMID: 6469990]
2.  Ferry, G., Loynel, A., Kucharczyk, N., Bertin, S., Rodriguez, M., Delagrange, P., Galizzi, J.P., Jacoby, E., Volland, J.P., Lesieur, D., Renard, P., Canet, E., Fauchere, J.L. and Boutin, J.A. Substrate specificity and inhibition studies of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 8794–8805. [DOI] [PMID: 10722724]
3.  Khalil, E.M. and Cole, P.A. A potent inhibitor of the melatonin rhythm enzyme. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 (1998) 6195–6196.
[EC 2.3.1.87 created 1986, modified 2005]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.123      
Transferred entry: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Now EC 2.7.11.17, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
[EC 2.7.1.123 created 1989, deleted 2005]
 
 
EC 2.7.11.17     
Accepted name: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
Reaction: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
Other name(s): ATP:caldesmon O-phosphotransferase; caldesmon kinase; caldesmon kinase (phosphorylating); Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase; Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1; Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV; Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase; Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β; calmodulin-dependent kinase II; CaM kinase; CaM kinase II; CAM PKII; CaM-regulated serine/threonine kinase; CaMKI; CaMKII; CaMKIV; CaMKKα; CaMKKβ; microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase; STK20
Systematic name: ATP:protein phosphotransferase (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent)
Comments: Requires calmodulin and Ca2+ for activity. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including vimentin, synapsin, glycogen synthase, myosin light chains and the microtubule-associated tau protein. Not identical with EC 2.7.11.18 (myosin-light-chain kinase) or EC 2.7.11.26 (tau-protein kinase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 141467-21-2
References:
1.  Adlersberg, M., Liu, K.P., Hsiung, S.C., Ehrlich, Y. and Tamir, H. A Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activity associated with serotonin binding protein. J. Neurochem. 49 (1987) 1105–1115. [DOI] [PMID: 3040904]
2.  Baudier, J. and Cole, R.D. Phosphorylation of tau proteins to a state like that in Alzheimer's brain is catalyzed by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase and modulated by phospholipids. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 17577–17583. [PMID: 3121601]
3.  Schulman, H., Kuret, J., Jefferson, A.B., Nose, P.S. and Spitzer, K.H. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase: broad substrate specificity and multifunctional potential in diverse tissues. Biochemistry 24 (1985) 5320–5327. [PMID: 4074698]
4.  Anderson, K.A., Means, R.L., Huang, Q.H., Kemp, B.E., Goldstein, E.G., Selbert, M.A., Edelman, A.M., Fremeau, R.T. and Means, A.R. Components of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. Molecular cloning, functional characterization and cellular localization of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 31880–31889. [DOI] [PMID: 9822657]
5.  Matsushita, M. and Nairn, A.C. Characterization of the mechanism of regulation of Ca2+/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 21473–21481. [DOI] [PMID: 9705275]
6.  Ohmstede, C.A., Jensen, K.F. and Sahyoun, N.E. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase enriched in cerebellar granule cells. Identification of a novel neuronal calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 5866–5875. [PMID: 2538431]
7.  Rieker, J.P., Swanljung-Collins, H. and Collins, J.H. Purification and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent myosin heavy chain kinase from intestinal brush border. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 15262–15268. [PMID: 2822719]
8.  Iwasa, T., Inoue, N., Fukunaga, K., Isobe, T., Okuyama, T. and Miyamoto, E. Purification and characterization of a multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinase from canine myocardial cytosol. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 248 (1986) 21–29. [DOI] [PMID: 3089163]
9.  Gomes, A.V., Barnes, J.A. and Vogel, H.J. Spectroscopic characterization of the interaction between calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I and calmodulin. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 379 (2000) 28–36. [DOI] [PMID: 10864438]
10.  Mal, T.K., Skrynnikov, N.R., Yap, K.L., Kay, L.E. and Ikura, M. Detecting protein kinase recognition modes of calmodulin by residual dipolar couplings in solution NMR. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 12899–12906. [DOI] [PMID: 12390014]
11.  Ngai, P.K. and Walsh, M.P. Inhibition of smooth muscle actin-activated myosin Mg2+-ATPase activity by caldesmon. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 13656–13659. [PMID: 6150036]
12.  Ikebe, M., Reardon, S., Scott-Woo, G.C., Zhou, Z. and Koda, Y. Purification and characterization of calmodulin-dependent multifunctional protein kinase from smooth muscle: isolation of caldesmon kinase. Biochemistry 29 (1990) 11242–11248. [PMID: 2176896]
[EC 2.7.11.17 created 1989 as EC 2.7.1.123, transferred 2005 to EC 2.7.11.17 (EC 2.7.1.120 incorporated 2005)]
 
 
EC 3.5.1.76     
Accepted name: arylalkyl acylamidase
Reaction: N-acetylarylalkylamine + H2O = arylalkylamine + acetate
Other name(s): aralkyl acylamidase
Systematic name: N-acetylarylalkylamine amidohydrolase
Comments: Identified in Pseudomonas putida. Strict specificity for N-acetyl arylalkylamines, including N-acetyl-2-phenylethylamine, N-acetyl-3-phenylpropylamine, N-acetyldopamine, N-acetyl-serotonin and melatonin. It also accepts arylalkyl acetates but not acetanilide derivatives, which are common substrates of EC 3.5.1.13, aryl acylamidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Shimizu, S., Ogawa, J., Chung, M.C.-M., Yamada, H. Purification and characterization of a novel enzyme, arylalkyl acylamidase, from Pseudomonas putida Sc2. Eur. J. Biochem. 209 (1992) 375–382. [DOI] [PMID: 1396711]
[EC 3.5.1.76 created 1999]
 
 
EC 4.1.1.28     
Accepted name: aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
Reaction: (1) L-dopa = dopamine + CO2
(2) 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan = 5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
For diagram of dopa biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of indole and ipecac alkaloid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dopamine = 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
L-dopa = 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Other name(s): DOPA decarboxylase; tryptophan decarboxylase; hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase; L-DOPA decarboxylase; aromatic amino acid decarboxylase; 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase; aromatic-L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase (tryptamine-forming)
Systematic name: aromatic-L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase
Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The enzyme also acts on some other aromatic L-amino acids, including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9042-64-2
References:
1.  Christenson, J.G., Dairman, W. and Udenfriend, S. On the identity of DOPA decarboxylase and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase (immunological titration-aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase-serotonin-dopamine-norepinephrine). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69 (1972) 343–347. [DOI] [PMID: 4536745]
2.  Lovenberg, W., Weissbach, H. and Udenfriend, S. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 237 (1962) 89–93. [PMID: 14466899]
3.  McGilvery, R.W. and Cohen, P.P. The decarboxylation of L-phenylalanine by Streptococcus faecalis R. J. Biol. Chem. 174 (1948) 813–816. [PMID: 18871240]
4.  Sekeris, C.E. Zur Tyrosinstoffwechsel der Insekten. XII. Reinigung, Eigenschaften und Substratspezifität der DOPA-Decarboxylase. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 332 (1963) 70–78. [PMID: 14054806]
5.  Weissbach, H., Bogdanski, D.F., Redfield, B.G. and Udenfriend, S. Studies on the effect of vitamin B6 on 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) formation. J. Biol. Chem. 227 (1957) 617–624. [PMID: 13462983]
[EC 4.1.1.28 created 1961 (EC 4.1.1.26 and EC 4.1.1.27 both created 1961 and incorporated 1972)]
 
 


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