The Enzyme Database

Your query returned 23 entries.    printer_iconPrintable version



EC 1.14.99.31      
Transferred entry: myristoyl-CoA 11-(E) desaturase. Now classified as EC 1.14.19.24, myristoyl-CoA 11-(E) desaturase
[EC 1.14.99.31 created 2000, deleted 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.32      
Transferred entry: myristoyl-CoA 11-(Z) desaturase. Now classified as EC 1.14.19.5, acyl-CoA 11-(Z)-desaturase.
[EC 1.14.99.32 created 2000, deleted 2015]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.97     
Accepted name: glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase
Reaction: tetradecanoyl-CoA + an N-terminal-glycyl-[protein] = CoA + an N-terminal-N-tetradecanoylglycyl-[protein]
Glossary: tetradecanoyl-CoA = myristoyl-CoA
Other name(s): NMT (gene name); peptide N-myristoyltransferase; myristoyl-CoA-protein N-myristoyltransferase; myristoyl-coenzyme A:protein N-myristoyl transferase; myristoylating enzymes; protein N-myristoyltransferase; tetradecanoyl-CoA:glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase
Systematic name: tetradecanoyl-CoA:N-terminal-glycine-[protein] N-tetradecanoyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the transfer of myristic acid from myristoyl-CoA to the amino group of the N-terminal glycine residue in a variety of eukaryotic proteins. It uses an ordered Bi Bi reaction in which myristoyl-CoA binds to the enzyme prior to the binding of the peptide substrate, and CoA release precedes the release of the myristoylated peptide. The enzyme from yeast is profoundly affected by amino acids further from the N-terminus, and is particularly stimulated by a serine residue at position 5.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 110071-61-9
References:
1.  Guertin, D., Gris-Miron, L. and Riendeau, D. Identification of a 51-kilodalton polypeptide fatty acyl chain acceptor in soluble extracts from mouse cardiac tissue. Biochem. Cell Biol. 64 (1986) 1249–1255. [PMID: 3566958]
2.  Heuckeroth, R.O., Towler, D.A., Adams, S.P., Glaser, L. and Gordon, J.I. 11-(Ethylthio)undecanoic acid. A myristic acid analogue of altered hydrophobicity which is functional for peptide N-myristoylation with wheat germ and yeast acyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 2127–2133. [PMID: 3123489]
3.  Towler, D.A., Adams, S.P., Eubanks, S.R., Towery, D.S., Jackson-Machelski, E., Glaser, L. and Gordon, J.I. Purification and characterization of yeast myristoyl CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84 (1987) 2708–2712. [PMID: 3106975]
4.  McIlhinney, R.A., Young, K., Egerton, M., Camble, R., White, A. and Soloviev, M. Characterization of human and rat brain myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase: evidence for an alternative splice variant of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 333 (1998) 491–495. [PMID: 9677304]
5.  Farazi, T.A., Waksman, G. and Gordon, J.I. Structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae N-myristoyltransferase with bound myristoylCoA and peptide provide insights about substrate recognition and catalysis. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 6335–6343. [PMID: 11371195]
[EC 2.3.1.97 created 1989, modified 1990, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.129     
Accepted name: acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase
Reaction: (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = an [acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: tetradecanoyl = myristoyl
Other name(s): UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine acyltransferase; acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase; (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)transferase
Systematic name: (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)transferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.4.1.182 (lipid-A-disaccharide synthase) and EC 2.7.1.130 (tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase) in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, Lipid A, in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 105843-69-4
References:
1.  Anderson, M.S., Bulawa, C.E. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A precursors from UDP-GlcNAc in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 15536–15541. [PMID: 3905795]
[EC 2.3.1.129 created 1990]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.191     
Accepted name: UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase
Reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine = UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: myristoyl = tetradecanoyl
Other name(s): UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; acyltransferase LpxD; acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase; firA (gene name); lpxD (gene name); (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. LpxD from Escherichia prefers (R,S)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] over (R,S)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] [1]. Escherichia coli lipid A acyltransferases do not have an absolute specificity for 14-carbon hydroxy fatty acids but can transfer fatty acids differing by one carbon unit if the fatty acid substrates are available. When grown on 1% propionic acid, lipid A also contains the odd-chain fatty acids tridecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hydroxytridecanoic acid, and hydroxypentadecanoic acid [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Crystal structure and acyl chain selectivity of Escherichia coli LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 8672–8683. [DOI] [PMID: 19655786]
2.  Buetow, L., Smith, T.K., Dawson, A., Fyffe, S. and Hunter, W.N. Structure and reactivity of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 4321–4326. [DOI] [PMID: 17360522]
3.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 5290–5302. [DOI] [PMID: 18422345]
4.  Kelly, T.M., Stachula, S.A., Raetz, C.R. and Anderson, M.S. The firA gene of Escherichia coli encodes UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase. The third step of endotoxin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 19866–19874. [PMID: 8366125]
5.  Bainbridge, B.W., Karimi-Naser, L., Reife, R., Blethen, F., Ernst, R.K. and Darveau, R.P. Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid heterogeneity in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 4549–4558. [DOI] [PMID: 18456814]
[EC 2.3.1.191 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.241     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase
Reaction: a dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Kdo2-lipid IVA = dodecanoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA + an [acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of Kdo-Kdo-Lipid IVA metabolism, click here
Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA
dodecanoyl = lauroyl
dodecanoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): LpxL; htrB (gene name); dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA O-dodecanoyltransferase; lauroyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-lauroyltransferase; (Kdo)2-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase; α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-(2→6)-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase
Systematic name: dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-dodecanoyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli, is involved in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated outer membrane glycolipid lipid A.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Clementz, T., Bednarski, J.J. and Raetz, C.R. Function of the htrB high temperature requirement gene of Escherichia coli in the acylation of lipid A: HtrB catalyzed incorporation of laurate. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 12095–12102. [DOI] [PMID: 8662613]
2.  Six, D.A., Carty, S.M., Guan, Z. and Raetz, C.R. Purification and mutagenesis of LpxL, the lauroyltransferase of Escherichia coli lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 8623–8637. [DOI] [PMID: 18656959]
[EC 2.3.1.241 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.242     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid IVA palmitoleoyltransferase
Reaction: a (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + Kdo2-lipid IVA = (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA + an [acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of Kdo-Kdo-Lipid IVA metabolism, click here
Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA
(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl = palmitoleoyl
(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{(3R)-3-[(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl]tetradecanamido}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): LpxP; palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent acyltransferase; cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase; palmitoleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-palmitoleoyltransferase; (Kdo)2-lipid IVA palmitoleoyltransferase; α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-(2→6)-lipid IVA palmitoleoyltransferase
Systematic name: (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-palmitoleoyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli, is induced upon cold shock and is involved in the formation of a cold-adapted variant of the outer membrane glycolipid lipid A.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Carty, S.M., Sreekumar, K.R. and Raetz, C.R. Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 9677–9685. [DOI] [PMID: 10092655]
2.  Vorachek-Warren, M.K., Carty, S.M., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. An Escherichia coli mutant lacking the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis: absence of unsaturated acyl chains and antibiotic hypersensitivity at 12 degrees C. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 14186–14193. [DOI] [PMID: 11830594]
[EC 2.3.1.242 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.243     
Accepted name: lauroyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA myristoyltransferase
Reaction: a tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + dodecanoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA = dodecanoyl-(tetradecanoyl)-Kdo2-lipid IVA + an [acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of Kdo-Kdo-Lipid IVA metabolism, click here
Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA
dodecanoyl = lauroyl
tetradecanoyl = myristoyl
dodecanoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
dodecanoyl-(tetradecanoyl)-Kdo2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): MsbB acyltransferase; lpxM (gene name); myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(dodecanoyl)-lipid IVA O-myristoyltransferase
Systematic name: tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:dodecanoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA O-tetradecanoyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli, is involved in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated outer membrane glycolipid lipid A.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Clementz, T., Zhou, Z. and Raetz, C.R. Function of the Escherichia coli msbB gene, a multicopy suppressor of htrB knockouts, in the acylation of lipid A. Acylation by MsbB follows laurate incorporation by HtrB. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 10353–10360. [DOI] [PMID: 9099672]
[EC 2.3.1.243 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.251     
Accepted name: lipid IVA palmitoyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + hexa-acyl lipid A = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + hepta-acyl lipid A
(2) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IIA = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IIB
(3) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IVA = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IVB
For diagram of lipid IVB biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: palmitoyl = hexadecanoyl
hexa-acyl lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
hepta-acyl lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IIA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranose phosphate
lipid IIB = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranose phosphate
lipid IVB = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): PagP; crcA (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:lipid-IVA palmitoyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The enzyme prefers phosphatidylcholine with a palmitoyl group at the sn-1 position and palmitoyl or stearoyl groups at the sn-2 position. There is some activity with corresponding phosphatidylserines but only weak activity with other diacylphosphatidyl compounds. The enzyme also acts on Kdo-(2→4)-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bishop, R.E., Gibbons, H.S., Guina, T., Trent, M.S., Miller, S.I. and Raetz, C.R. Transfer of palmitate from phospholipids to lipid A in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. EMBO J. 19 (2000) 5071–5080. [DOI] [PMID: 11013210]
2.  Cuesta-Seijo, J.A., Neale, C., Khan, M.A., Moktar, J., Tran, C.D., Bishop, R.E., Pomes, R. and Prive, G.G. PagP crystallized from SDS/cosolvent reveals the route for phospholipid access to the hydrocarbon ruler. Structure 18 (2010) 1210–1219. [DOI] [PMID: 20826347]
[EC 2.3.1.251 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.182     
Accepted name: lipid-A-disaccharide synthase
Reaction: UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine + 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosaminyl 1-phosphate = UDP + 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosaminyl 1-phosphate
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-2,3-bis(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)glucosamine:2,3-bis-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-β-D-glucosaminyl-1-phosphate 2,3-bis(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-glucosaminyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine:2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosaminyl-1-phosphate 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.3.1.129 (acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase) and EC 2.7.1.130 (tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase) in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, lipid A, in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 105843-81-0
References:
1.  Ray, B.L., Painter, G. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A disaccharides from monosaccharide precursors in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 4852–4859. [PMID: 6370995]
2.  Crowell, D.N., Reznikoff, W.S. and Raetz, C.R.H. Nucleotide sequence of the Escherichia coli gene for lipid A disaccharide synthase. J. Bacteriol. 169 (1987) 5727–5734. [DOI] [PMID: 2824445]
[EC 2.4.1.182 created 1990]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.43     
Accepted name: lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[4-P-L-Ara4N]-lipid A + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
(2) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + lipid IVA = lipid IIA + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
(3) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = 4′-α-L-Ara4N-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
For diagram of lipid IIA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
lipid IIA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
4′-α-L-Ara4N-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosy-(1→6)-2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A = lipid A of Escherichia coli = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[4′-P-α-L-Ara4N]-lipid A = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-(4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl)phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): undecaprenyl phosphate-α-L-Ara4N transferase; 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose lipid A transferase; polymyxin resistance protein PmrK; arnT (gene name)
Systematic name: 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate:lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinopyranosyltransferase
Comments: Integral membrane protein present in the inner membrane of certain Gram negative endobacteria. In strains that do not produce 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), the enzyme adds a single arabinose unit to the 1-phosphate moiety of the tetra-acylated lipid A precursor, lipid IVA. In the presence of a Kdo disaccharide, the enzyme primarily adds an arabinose unit to the 4-phosphate of lipid A molecules. The Salmonella typhimurium enzyme can add arabinose units to both positions.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Trent, M.S., Ribeiro, A.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. An inner membrane enzyme in Salmonella and Escherichia coli that transfers 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose to lipid A: induction on polymyxin-resistant mutants and role of a novel lipid-linked donor. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43122–43131. [DOI] [PMID: 11535604]
2.  Trent, M.S., Ribeiro, A.A., Doerrler, W.T., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Accumulation of a polyisoprene-linked amino sugar in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli: structural characterization and transfer to lipid A in the periplasm. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43132–43144. [DOI] [PMID: 11535605]
3.  Zhou, Z., Ribeiro, A.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J., Miller, S.I. and Raetz, C.R. Lipid A modifications in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium: PMRA-dependent 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, and phosphoethanolamine incorporation. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43111–43121. [DOI] [PMID: 11535603]
4.  Bretscher, L.E., Morrell, M.T., Funk, A.L. and Klug, C.S. Purification and characterization of the L-Ara4N transferase protein ArnT from Salmonella typhimurium. Protein Expr. Purif. 46 (2006) 33–39. [DOI] [PMID: 16226890]
5.  Impellitteri, N.A., Merten, J.A., Bretscher, L.E. and Klug, C.S. Identification of a functionally important loop in Salmonella typhimurium ArnT. Biochemistry 49 (2010) 29–35. [DOI] [PMID: 19947657]
[EC 2.4.2.43 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.12     
Accepted name: lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): KDO transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; lipid IVA KDO transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase
Comments: The bifunctional enzyme from Escherichia coli transfers two 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues to lipid IVA (cf. EC 2.4.99.13 [(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase]) [1]. The monofunctional enzymes from Aquifex aeolicus and Haemophilus influenzae catalyse the transfer of a single 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residue from CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate to lipid IVA [2,3]. The enzymes from Chlamydia transfer three or more 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues and generate genus-specific epitopes [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Belunis, C.J. and Raetz, C.R. Biosynthesis of endotoxins. Purification and catalytic properties of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 9988–9997. [PMID: 1577828]
2.  Mamat, U., Schmidt, H., Munoz, E., Lindner, B., Fukase, K., Hanuszkiewicz, A., Wu, J., Meredith, T.C., Woodard, R.W., Hilgenfeld, R., Mesters, J.R. and Holst, O. WaaA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is a monofunctional 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 22248–22262. [DOI] [PMID: 19546212]
3.  White, K.A., Kaltashov, I.A., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A mono-functional 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase and a Kdo kinase in extracts of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 16555–16563. [DOI] [PMID: 9195966]
4.  Lobau, S., Mamat, U., Brabetz, W. and Brade, H. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and functional characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene kdtA encoding 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TW-183. Mol. Microbiol. 18 (1995) 391–399. [DOI] [PMID: 8748024]
[EC 2.4.99.12 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.13     
Accepted name: (Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (Kdo)-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase
Comments: The bifunctional enzyme from Escherichia coli transfers two 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues to lipid IVA (cf. EC 2.4.99.12 [lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase]) [1]. The enzymes from Chlamydia transfer three or more 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues and generate genus-specific epitopes [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Belunis, C.J. and Raetz, C.R. Biosynthesis of endotoxins. Purification and catalytic properties of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 9988–9997. [PMID: 1577828]
2.  Lobau, S., Mamat, U., Brabetz, W. and Brade, H. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and functional characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene kdtA encoding 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TW-183. Mol. Microbiol. 18 (1995) 391–399. [DOI] [PMID: 8748024]
[EC 2.4.99.13 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.14     
Accepted name: (Kdo)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (Kdo)2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)3-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)2-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase [(2→8) glycosidic bond-forming]
Comments: The enzymes from Chlamydia transfer three or more 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues and generate genus-specific epitopes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lobau, S., Mamat, U., Brabetz, W. and Brade, H. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and functional characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene kdtA encoding 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TW-183. Mol. Microbiol. 18 (1995) 391–399. [DOI] [PMID: 8748024]
2.  Mamat, U., Baumann, M., Schmidt, G. and Brade, H. The genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia is assembled in C. psittaci and C. trachomatis by glycosyltransferases of low homology. Mol. Microbiol. 10 (1993) 935–941. [DOI] [PMID: 7523826]
3.  Belunis, C.J., Mdluli, K.E., Raetz, C.R. and Nano, F.E. A novel 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from Chlamydia trachomatis required for expression of the genus-specific epitope. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 18702–18707. [PMID: 1382060]
[EC 2.4.99.14 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.15     
Accepted name: (Kdo)3-lipid IVA (2-4) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→8)-[α-Kdo-(2→4)]-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (Kdo)3-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)4-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-[α-Kdo-(2→4)]-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-[(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)]-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)3-lipid IVA (2-4) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)3-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase [(2→4) glycosidic bond-forming]
Comments: The enzyme from Chlamydia psittaci transfers four Kdo residues to lipid A, forming a branched tetrasaccharide with the structure α-Kdo-(2,8)-[α-Kdo-(2,4)]-α-Kdo-(2,4)-α-Kdo (cf. EC 2.4.99.12 [lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase], EC 2.4.99.13 [(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase], and EC 2.4.99.14 [(Kdo)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase]).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brabetz, W., Lindner, B. and Brade, H. Comparative analyses of secondary gene products of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferases from Chlamydiaceae in Escherichia coli K-12. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 5458–5465. [DOI] [PMID: 10951204]
2.  Holst, O., Bock, K., Brade, L. and Brade, H. The structures of oligosaccharide bisphosphates isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing the gene gseA [3-deoxy-D-manno-octulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) transferase] of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Eur. J. Biochem. 229 (1995) 194–200. [DOI] [PMID: 7744029]
[EC 2.4.99.15 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.130     
Accepted name: tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase
Reaction: ATP + {2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-β-D-glucosaminyl}-(1→6)-{2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosaminyl phosphate} = ADP + {2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucosaminyl}-(1→6)-{2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosaminyl phosphate}
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): lipid-A 4′-kinase
Systematic name: ATP:2,2′,3,3′-tetrakis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)-α-D-glucosaminyl-phosphate 4′-O-phosphotransferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.3.1.129 (acyl-[acyl-carrier- protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase) and EC 2.4.1.182 (lipid-A-disaccharide synthase) in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, lipid A, in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 107309-06-8
References:
1.  Ray, B.L. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. A novel kinase in Escherichia coli membranes that incorporates the 4′-phosphate of lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 1122–1128. [PMID: 3027079]
[EC 2.7.1.130 created 1990]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.166     
Accepted name: 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + ATP = 4-O-phospho-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + ADP
Glossary: (Kdo)-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(4-O-phospho-KDO)-lipid IVA = 4-O-phospho-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-4-O-phosphono-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): kdkA (gene name); Kdo kinase
Systematic name: ATP:(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranose 4-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme phosphorylates the 4-OH position of Kdo in (Kdo)-lipid IVA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brabetz, W., Muller-Loennies, S. and Brade, H. 3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase (WaaA) and kdo kinase (KdkA) of Haemophilus influenzae are both required to complement a waaA knockout mutation of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 34954–34962. [DOI] [PMID: 10952982]
2.  Harper, M., Boyce, J.D., Cox, A.D., St Michael, F., Wilkie, I.W., Blackall, P.J. and Adler, B. Pasteurella multocida expresses two lipopolysaccharide glycoforms simultaneously, but only a single form is required for virulence: identification of two acceptor-specific heptosyl I transferases. Infect. Immun. 75 (2007) 3885–3893. [DOI] [PMID: 17517879]
3.  White, K.A., Kaltashov, I.A., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A mono-functional 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase and a Kdo kinase in extracts of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 16555–16563. [DOI] [PMID: 9195966]
4.  White, K.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A Haemophilus influenzae gene that encodes a membrane bound 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) kinase. Possible involvement of kdo phosphorylation in bacterial virulence. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 31391–31400. [DOI] [PMID: 10531340]
[EC 2.7.1.166 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.29     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid A phosphotransferase
Reaction: ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl diphosphate + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A 1-diphosphate
Glossary: lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A 1-diphosphate =
2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl diphosphate
Other name(s): lipid A undecaprenyl phosphotransferase; LpxT; YeiU
Systematic name: ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl diphosphate:α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid-A phosphotransferase
Comments: An inner-membrane protein. The activity of the enzyme is regulated by PmrA. In vitro the enzyme can use diacylglycerol 3-diphosphate as the phosphate donor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Touze, T., Tran, A.X., Hankins, J.V., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. and Trent, M.S. Periplasmic phosphorylation of lipid A is linked to the synthesis of undecaprenyl phosphate. Mol. Microbiol. 67 (2008) 264–277. [DOI] [PMID: 18047581]
2.  Herrera, C.M., Hankins, J.V. and Trent, M.S. Activation of PmrA inhibits LpxT-dependent phosphorylation of lipid A promoting resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 1444–1460. [DOI] [PMID: 20384697]
[EC 2.7.4.29 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.30      
Transferred entry: lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase. Now EC 2.7.8.43, lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase
[EC 2.7.4.30 created 2015, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.42     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid A phosphoethanolamine 7′′-transferase
Reaction: (1) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = diacylglycerol + 7-O-[2-aminoethoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]-α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A
(2) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = diacylglycerol + 7-O-[2-aminoethoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]-α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA
Glossary: lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): eptB (gene name)
Systematic name: diacylphosphatidylethanolamine:α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid-A 7′′-phosphoethanolaminetransferase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli. It is activated by Ca2+ ions and is silenced by the sRNA MgrR.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kanipes, M.I., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Ca2+-induced phosphoethanolamine transfer to the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid moiety of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. A novel membrane enzyme dependent upon phosphatidylethanolamine. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 1156–1163. [DOI] [PMID: 11042192]
2.  Reynolds, C.M., Kalb, S.R., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A phosphoethanolamine transferase specific for the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid residue of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Identification of the eptB gene and Ca2+ hypersensitivity of an eptB deletion mutant. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 21202–21211. [DOI] [PMID: 15795227]
3.  Moon, K., Six, D.A., Lee, H.J., Raetz, C.R. and Gottesman, S. Complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of an enzyme for lipopolysaccharide modification. Mol. Microbiol. 89 (2013) 52–64. [DOI] [PMID: 23659637]
[EC 2.7.8.42 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.43     
Accepted name: lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase
Reaction: (1) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A = diacylglycerol + lipid A 1-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
(2) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A = diacylglycerol + lipid A 4′-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
(3) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A 1-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate) = diacylglycerol + lipid A 1,4′-bis(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
Glossary: lipid A (Campylobacter jejuni) = 2,3-dideoxy-2,3-bis[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Escherichia coli) =
2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Helicobacter pylori) = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(octadecanoyloxy)octadecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxyoctadecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Neisseria meningitidis) =
2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A 1-[(2-aminoethyl) diphosphate] = P1-(2-aminoethyl)
P2-(2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate
lipid A 1,4′-bis(2-aminoethyl diphosphate) = P1-(2-aminoethyl)
P2-(2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-(2-aminoethyldiphospho)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate
Other name(s): lipid A PEA transferase; LptA
Systematic name: diacylphosphatidylethanolamine:lipid-A ethanolaminephosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme adds one or two ethanolamine phosphate groups to lipid A giving a diphosphate, sometimes in combination with EC 2.4.2.43 (lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosyltransferase) giving products with 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose groups at the phosphates of lipid A instead of diphosphoethanolamine groups. It will also act on lipid IVA and Kdo2-lipid A.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tran, A.X., Karbarz, M.J., Wang, X., Raetz, C.R., McGrath, S.C., Cotter, R.J. and Trent, M.S. Periplasmic cleavage and modification of the 1-phosphate group of Helicobacter pylori lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 55780–55791. [DOI] [PMID: 15489235]
2.  Herrera, C.M., Hankins, J.V. and Trent, M.S. Activation of PmrA inhibits LpxT-dependent phosphorylation of lipid A promoting resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 1444–1460. [DOI] [PMID: 20384697]
3.  Cullen, T.W. and Trent, M.S. A link between the assembly of flagella and lipooligosaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 5160–5165. [DOI] [PMID: 20194750]
4.  Anandan, A., Piek, S., Kahler, C.M. and Vrielink, A. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of an endotoxin-biosynthesis enzyme from Neisseria meningitidis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 68 (2012) 1494–1497. [DOI] [PMID: 23192031]
5.  Wanty, C., Anandan, A., Piek, S., Walshe, J., Ganguly, J., Carlson, R.W., Stubbs, K.A., Kahler, C.M. and Vrielink, A. The structure of the neisserial lipooligosaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferase A (LptA) required for resistance to polymyxin. J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3389–3402. [DOI] [PMID: 23810904]
[EC 2.7.8.43 created 2015 as EC 2.7.4.30, transferred 2016 to EC 2.7.8.43]
 
 
EC 3.1.1.51     
Accepted name: phorbol-diester hydrolase
Reaction: phorbol 12,13-dibutanoate + H2O = phorbol 13-butanoate + butanoate
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): diacylphorbate 12-hydrolase; diacylphorbate 12-hydrolase; phorbol-12,13-diester 12-ester hydrolase; PDEH
Systematic name: 12,13-diacylphorbate 12-acylhydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses the 12-ester bond in a variety of 12,13-diacylphorbols (phorbol is a diterpenoid); this reaction inactivates the tumour promotor 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate from croton oil.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 81181-74-0
References:
1.  Shoyab, M., Warren, T.C. and Todaro, G.J. Isolation and characterization of an ester hydrolase active on phorbol diesters from murine liver. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 12529–12534. [PMID: 6946062]
[EC 3.1.1.51 created 1984]
 
 
EC 3.6.1.54     
Accepted name: UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine diphosphatase
Reaction: UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine + H2O = 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl ]-α-D-glucosaminyl 1-phosphate + UMP
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: tetradecanoyl = myristoyl
Other name(s): UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine hydrolase; UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine pyrophosphatase; ybbF (gene name); lpxH (gene name); UDP-2,3-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-α-D-glucosamine 2,3-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-β-D-glucosaminyl 1-phosphate phosphohydrolase (incorrect)
Systematic name: UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine 2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosaminyl 1-phosphate phosphohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step in the biosynthesis of lipid A.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Babinski, K.J., Ribeiro, A.A. and Raetz, C.R. The Escherichia coli gene encoding the UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine pyrophosphatase of lipid A biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 25937–25946. [DOI] [PMID: 12000770]
2.  Babinski, K.J., Kanjilal, S.J. and Raetz, C.R. Accumulation of the lipid A precursor UDP-2,3-diacylglucosamine in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the lpxH gene. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 25947–25956. [DOI] [PMID: 12000771]
[EC 3.6.1.54 created 2010]
 
 


Data © 2001–2020 IUBMB
Web site © 2005–2020 Andrew McDonald