The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase
Reaction: S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione + NAD(P)+ = S-formylglutathione + NAD(P)H + H+
Other name(s): NAD-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (incorrect); formaldehyde dehydrogenase (incorrect); formic dehydrogenase (incorrect); class III alcohol dehydrogenase; ADH3; χ-ADH; FDH (incorrect); formaldehyde dehydrogenase (glutathione) (incorrect); GS-FDH (incorrect); glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (incorrect); GD-FALDH; NAD- and glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase; NAD-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (incorrect)
Systematic name: S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The substrate, S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione, forms spontaneously from glutathione and formaldehyde; its rate of formation is increased in some bacteria by the presence of EC, S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione synthase. This enzyme forms part of the pathway that detoxifies formaldehyde, since the product is hydrolysed by EC, S-formylglutathione hydrolase. The human enzyme belongs to the family of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. Also specifically reduces S-nitrosylglutathione.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EAWAG-BBD, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
1.  Jakoby, W.B. Aldehyde dehydrogenases. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 203–221.
2.  Rose, Z.B. and Racker, E. Formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Methods Enzymol. 9 (1966) 357–360.
3.  Liu, L., Hausladen, A., Zeng, M., Que, L., Heitman, J. and Stamler, J.S. A metabolic enzyme for S-nitrosothiol conserved from bacteria to humans. Nature 410 (2001) 490–494. [DOI] [PMID: 11260719]
4.  Sanghani, P.C., Stone, C.L., Ray, B.D., Pindel, E.V., Hurley, T.D. and Bosron, W.F. Kinetic mechanism of human glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 10720–10729. [DOI] [PMID: 10978156]
5.  van Ophem, P.W. and Duine, J.A. NAD- and co-substrate (GSH or factor)-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenases from methylotrophic microorganisms act as a class III alcohol dehydrogenase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 116 (1994) 87–94.
6.  Ras, J., van Ophem, P.W., Reijnders, W.N., Van Spanning, R.J., Duine, J.A., Stouthamer, A.H. and Harms, N. Isolation, sequencing, and mutagenesis of the gene encoding NAD- and glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GD-FALDH) from Paracoccus denitrificans, in which GD-FALDH is essential for methylotrophic growth. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 247–251. [DOI] [PMID: 7798140]
7.  Barber, R.D., Rott, M.A. and Donohue, T.J. Characterization of a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J. Bacteriol. 178 (1996) 1386–1393. [DOI] [PMID: 8631716]
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