The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.187     
Accepted name: GDP-4-dehydro-D-rhamnose reductase
Reaction: (1) GDP-α-D-rhamnose + NAD(P)+ = GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + NAD(P)H + H+
(2) GDP-6-deoxy-α-D-talose + NAD(P)+ = GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of gdp-l-fucose and GDP-mannose biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: GDP-α-D-rhamnose = GDP-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose
GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose = GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose
GDP-6-deoxy-α-D-talose = GDP-α-D-pneumose
Other name(s): GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase; GDP-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase; guanosine diphosphate-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase; GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase; GDP-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, which operates in the opposite direction to that shown, forms a mixture of GDP-α-D-rhamnose and its C-4 epimer, GDP-6-deoxy-α-D-talose. cf. EC 1.1.1.281, GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase and EC 1.1.1.135, GDP-6-deoxy-D-talose 4-dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9075-56-3
References:
1.  Barber, G.A. The synthesis of guanosine 5′-diphosphate D-rhamnose by enzymes of a higher plant. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 165 (1968) 68–75. [DOI] [PMID: 4386238]
2.  Winkler, N.W. and Markovitz, A. Guanosine diphosphate-4-keto-D-rhamnose reductase. A non-stereoselective enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 246 (1971) 5868–5876. [PMID: 4398966]
[EC 1.1.1.187 created 1984]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.281     
Accepted name: GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-rhamnose + NAD(P)+ = GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of gdp-l-fucose and GDP-mannose biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: GDP-α-D-rhamnose = GDP-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose
GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose = GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose
Other name(s): GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase [ambiguous]; GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase; Rmd; GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase (D-rhamnose-forming); GDP-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase (D-rhamnose-forming)
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-rhamnose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme differs from EC 1.1.1.187, GDP-4-dehydro-D-rhamnose reductase, in that the only product formed is GDP-α-D-rhamnose. D-Rhamnose is a constituent of lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative plant and human pathogenic bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kneidinger, B., Graninger, M., Adam, G., Puchberger, M., Kosma, P., Zayni, S. and Messner, P. Identification of two GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductases synthesizing GDP-D-rhamnose in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91T. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 5577–5583. [DOI] [PMID: 11096116]
2.  Mäki, M., Järvinen, N., Räbinä, J., Roos, C., Maaheimo, H., Mattila, P. and Renkonen, R. Functional expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase which synthesizes GDP-rhamnose. Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2002) 593–601. [DOI] [PMID: 11856318]
[EC 1.1.1.281 created 2004]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.47     
Accepted name: GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose = GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose + H2O
For diagram of gdp-l-fucose and GDP-mannose biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose = GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-mannose
Other name(s): guanosine 5′-diphosphate-D-mannose oxidoreductase; guanosine diphosphomannose oxidoreductase; guanosine diphosphomannose 4,6-dehydratase; GDP-D-mannose dehydratase; GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase; Gmd; GDP-mannose 4,6-hydro-lyase; GDP-mannose 4,6-hydro-lyase (GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose-forming)
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose 4,6-hydro-lyase (GDP-4-dehydro-α-D-rhamnose-forming)
Comments: The bacterial enzyme requires bound NAD+. This enzyme forms the first step in the biosynthesis of GDP-α-D-rhamnose and GDP-β-L-fucose. In Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91T, this enzyme acts as a bifunctional enzyme, catalysing the above reaction as well as the reaction catalysed by EC 1.1.1.281, GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase [5]. Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme family, having homologous structures and a conserved catalytic triad of Lys, Tyr and Ser/Thr residues [6].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37211-59-9
References:
1.  Elbein, A.D. and Heath, E.C. The biosynthesis of cell wall lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. II. Guanosine diphosphate 4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of guanosine diphosphate colitose. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 1926–1931. [PMID: 14299611]
2.  Liao, T.-H. and Barber, G.A. Purification of guanosine 5′-diphosphate D-mannose oxidoreductase from Phaseolus vulgaris. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 276 (1972) 85–93. [DOI] [PMID: 5047712]
3.  Melo, A., Elliott, H. and Glaser, L. The mechanism of 6-deoxyhexose synthesis. I. Intramolecular hydrogen transfer catalyzed by deoxythymidine diphosphate D-glucose oxidoreductase. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 1467–1474. [PMID: 4869560]
4.  Sullivan, F.X., Kumar, R., Kriz, R., Stahl, M., Xu, G.Y., Rouse, J., Chang, X.J., Boodhoo, A., Potvin, B. and Cumming, D.A. Molecular cloning of human GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and reconstitution of GDP-fucose biosynthesis in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1988) 8193–8202. [DOI] [PMID: 9525924]
5.  Kneidinger, B., Graninger, M., Adam, G., Puchberger, M., Kosma, P., Zayni, S. and Messner, P. Identification of two GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductases synthesizing GDP-D-rhamnose in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91T. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 5577–5583. [DOI] [PMID: 11096116]
6.  Mulichak, A.M., Bonin, C.P., Reiter, W.D. and Garavito, R.M. Structure of the MUR1 GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase from Arabidopsis thaliana: implications for ligand binding and specificity. Biochemistry 41 (2000) 15578–15589. [DOI] [PMID: 12501186]
[EC 4.2.1.47 created 1972, modified 2004]
 
 


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