The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.5.1.1     
Accepted name: 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase [NAD(P)H]
Reaction: (1) L-pipecolate + NAD(P)+ = 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NAD(P)H + H+
(2) L-proline + NAD(P)+ = 1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate + NAD(P)H + H+
Other name(s): Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase; DELTA1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase; DELTA1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase (ambiguous); AbLhpI; pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase; L-proline:NAD(P)+ 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: L-pipecolate/L-proline:NAD(P)+ 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzymes, characterized from the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, is involved in trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline metabolism. In contrast to EC 1.5.1.21, 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase (NADPH), which is specific for NADPH, this enzyme shows similar activity with NADPH and NADH.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9029-16-7
References:
1.  Meister, A., Radhakrishnan, A.N. and Buckley, S.D. Enzymatic synthesis of L-pipecolic acid and L-proline. J. Biol. Chem. 229 (1957) 789–800. [PMID: 13502341]
2.  Watanabe, S., Tanimoto, Y., Yamauchi, S., Tozawa, Y., Sawayama, S. and Watanabe, Y. Identification and characterization of trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline dehydratase and Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase involved in trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline metabolism of bacteria. FEBS Open Bio 4 (2014) 240–250. [DOI] [PMID: 24649405]
[EC 1.5.1.1 created 1961, modified 2015]
 
 
EC 1.5.1.21     
Accepted name: 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: (1) L-pipecolate + NADP+ = 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate + NADPH + H+
(2) L-proline + NADP+ = 1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate + NADPH + H+
Glossary: 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate = 3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate
Other name(s): Pyr2C reductase; 1,2-didehydropipecolate reductase; P2C reductase; 1,2-didehydropipecolic reductase; DELTA1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase (ambiguous); L-pipecolate:NADP+ 2-oxidoreductase; DELTA1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase; Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase
Systematic name: L-pipecolate/L-proline:NADP+ 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the catabolism of D-lysine and D-proline in bacteria that belong to the Pseudomonas genus. In contrast to EC 1.5.1.1, 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase [NAD(P)H], which shows similar activity with NADPH and NADH, this enzyme is specific for NADPH.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 52037-88-4
References:
1.  Payton, C.W. and Chang, Y.-F. Δ1-Piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase of Pseudomonas putida. J. Bacteriol. 149 (1982) 864–871. [PMID: 6801013]
2.  Muramatsu, H., Mihara, H., Kakutani, R., Yasuda, M., Ueda, M., Kurihara, T. and Esaki, N. The putative malate/lactate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida is an NADPH-dependent Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate/Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase involved in the catabolism of D-lysine and D-proline. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 5329–5335. [DOI] [PMID: 15561717]
3.  Watanabe, S., Tanimoto, Y., Yamauchi, S., Tozawa, Y., Sawayama, S. and Watanabe, Y. Identification and characterization of trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline dehydratase and Δ1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate reductase involved in trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline metabolism of bacteria. FEBS Open Bio 4 (2014) 240–250. [DOI] [PMID: 24649405]
[EC 1.5.1.21 created 1984 (EC 1.5.1.14 created 1976, incorporated 1989), modified 2015]
 
 
EC 1.5.3.7     
Accepted name: L-pipecolate oxidase
Reaction: L-pipecolate + O2 = (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate + H2O2
Glossary: L-1-piperideine 6-carboxylate = (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate = (S)-1,6-didehydropiperidine-2-carboxylate
(S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate = L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde = L-allysine
Other name(s): pipecolate oxidase; L-pipecolic acid oxidase
Systematic name: L-pipecolate:oxygen 1,6-oxidoreductase
Comments: The product reacts with water to form (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 81669-65-0
References:
1.  Baginsky, B.L. and Rodwell, V.W. Metabolism of pipecolic acid in a Pseudomonas species. V. Pipecolate oxidase and dehydrogenase. J. Bacteriol. 94 (1967) 1034–1039. [PMID: 6051341]
2.  Kinzel, J.J. and Bhattacharjee, J.K. Lysine biosynthesis in Rhodotorula glutinis: properties of pipecolic acid oxidase. J. Bacteriol. 151 (1982) 1073–1077. [PMID: 6809728]
[EC 1.5.3.7 created 1986, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 1.5.99.3     
Accepted name: L-pipecolate dehydrogenase
Reaction: L-pipecolate + acceptor = (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate + reduced acceptor
Glossary: (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate = L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde = L-allysine
L-1-piperideine 6-carboxylate = (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2-carboxylate = (S)-1,6-didehydropiperidine-2-carboxylate
Other name(s): L-pipecolate:(acceptor) 1,6-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: L-pipecolate:acceptor 1,6-oxidoreductase
Comments: The product reacts with water to form (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9076-63-5
References:
1.  Baginsky, B.L. and Rodwell, V.W. Metabolism of pipecolic acid in a Pseudomonas species. V. Pipecolate oxidase and dehydrogenase. J. Bacteriol. 94 (1967) 1034–1039. [PMID: 6051341]
[EC 1.5.99.3 created 1972, modified 1986, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 3.5.1.101     
Accepted name: L-proline amide hydrolase
Reaction: (1) (S)-piperidine-2-carboxamide + H2O = (S)-piperidine-2-carboxylate + NH3
(2) L-prolinamide + H2O = L-proline + NH3
Glossary: L-pipecolate = piperidine-2-carboxylate
Other name(s): S-stereoselective piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide hydrolase; LaaA; L-amino acid amidase
Systematic name: (S)-piperidine-2-carboxamide amidohydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Komeda, H., Harada, H., Washika, S., Sakamoto, T., Ueda, M. and Asano, Y. S-stereoselective piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide hydrolase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603 is a novel L-amino acid amidase. Eur. J. Biochem. 271 (2004) 1465–1475. [DOI] [PMID: 15066172]
[EC 3.5.1.101 created 2009]
 
 
EC 4.3.1.28     
Accepted name: L-lysine cyclodeaminase
Reaction: L-lysine = L-pipecolate + NH3
Other name(s): rapL (gene name); fkbL (gene name); tubZ (gene name); visC (gene name)
Systematic name: L-lysine ammonia-lyase (cyclizing; ammonia-forming)
Comments: Requires bound NAD+. The enzyme produces the non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolate, which is incorporated into multiple secondary metabolite products, including rapamycin, tobulysin, virginiamycin and pristinamycin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Khaw, L.E., Bohm, G.A., Metcalfe, S., Staunton, J. and Leadlay, P.F. Mutational biosynthesis of novel rapamycins by a strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL 5491 disrupted in rapL, encoding a putative lysine cyclodeaminase. J. Bacteriol. 180 (1998) 809–814. [PMID: 9473033]
2.  Gatto, G.J., Jr., Boyne, M.T., 2nd, Kelleher, N.L. and Walsh, C.T. Biosynthesis of pipecolic acid by RapL, a lysine cyclodeaminase encoded in the rapamycin gene cluster. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 3838–3847. [DOI] [PMID: 16536560]
3.  Tsotsou, G.E. and Barbirato, F. Biochemical characterisation of recombinant Streptomyces pristinaespiralis L-lysine cyclodeaminase. Biochimie 89 (2007) 591–604. [DOI] [PMID: 17291665]
[EC 4.3.1.28 created 2012]
 
 


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