The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.3.1.84     
Accepted name: acrylyl-CoA reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: propanoyl-CoA + NADP+ = acryloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
For diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate cycle, click here, for diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle and dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle in archaea, click here and for diagram of 3-(dimethylsulfonio)propanoate met
Glossary: propanoyl-CoA = propionyl-CoA
acryloyl-CoA = acrylyl-CoA = propenoyl-CoA
Systematic name: propanoyl-CoA:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Catalyses a step in the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle, an autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway found in some thermoacidophilic archaea [1]. The enzyme from Sulfolobus tokodaii does not act on either NADH or crotonyl-CoA [2]. Different from EC 1.3.1.8, which acts only on enoyl-CoA derivatives of carbon chain length 4 to 16. Contains Zn2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Berg, I.A., Kockelkorn, D., Buckel, W. and Fuchs, G. A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea. Science 318 (2007) 1782–1786. [DOI] [PMID: 18079405]
2.  Teufel, R., Kung, J.W., Kockelkorn, D., Alber, B.E. and Fuchs, G. 3-hydroxypropionyl-coenzyme A dehydratase and acryloyl-coenzyme A reductase, enzymes of the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle in the Sulfolobales. J. Bacteriol. 191 (2009) 4572–4581. [DOI] [PMID: 19429610]
[EC 1.3.1.84 created 2009, modified 2014]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.95     
Accepted name: acrylyl-CoA reductase (NADH)
Reaction: propanoyl-CoA + NAD+ = acryloyl-CoA + NADH + H+
For diagram of 3-(dimethylsulfonio)propanoate metabolism, click here
Glossary: propanoyl-CoA = propionyl-CoA
Systematic name: propanoyl-CoA:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. The reaction is catalysed in the opposite direction to that shown. The enzyme from the bacterium Clostridium propionicum is a complex that includes an electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF). The ETF is reduced by NADH and transfers the electrons to the active site. Catalyses a step in a pathway for L-alanine fermentation to propanoate [1]. cf. EC 1.3.1.84, acrylyl-CoA reductase (NADPH).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hetzel, M., Brock, M., Selmer, T., Pierik, A.J., Golding, B.T. and Buckel, W. Acryloyl-CoA reductase from Clostridium propionicum. An enzyme complex of propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and electron-transferring flavoprotein. Eur. J. Biochem. 270 (2003) 902–910. [DOI] [PMID: 12603323]
2.  Kandasamy, V., Vaidyanathan, H., Djurdjevic, I., Jayamani, E., Ramachandran, K.B., Buckel, W., Jayaraman, G. and Ramalingam, S. Engineering Escherichia coli with acrylate pathway genes for propionic acid synthesis and its impact on mixed-acid fermentation. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 97 (2013) 1191–1200. [DOI] [PMID: 22810300]
[EC 1.3.1.95 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.108     
Accepted name: caffeoyl-CoA reductase
Reaction: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoyl-CoA + 2 NAD+ + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
Glossary: (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl-CoA = (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acryloyl-CoA = trans-caffeoyl-CoA
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoyl-CoA = hydrocaffeoyl-CoA
Other name(s): electron-bifurcating caffeoyl-CoA reductase; caffeoyl-CoA reductase-Etf complex; hydrocaffeoyl-CoA:NAD+,ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoyl-CoA:NAD+,ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Acetobacterium woodii, contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters and FAD. The enzyme couples the endergonic ferredoxin reduction with NADH as reductant to the exergonic reduction of caffeoyl-CoA with the same reductant. It uses the mechanism of electron bifurcation to overcome the steep energy barrier in ferredoxin reduction. It also reduces 4-coumaroyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bertsch, J., Parthasarathy, A., Buckel, W. and Muller, V. An electron-bifurcating caffeyl-CoA reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (2013) 11304–11311. [DOI] [PMID: 23479729]
[EC 1.3.1.108 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.8.3.17     
Accepted name: 3-(aryl)acryloyl-CoA:(R)-3-(aryl)lactate CoA-transferase
Reaction: (1) (E)-cinnamoyl-CoA + (R)-(phenyl)lactate = (E)-cinnamate + (R)-(phenyl)lactoyl-CoA
(2) (E)-4-coumaroyl-CoA + (R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate = 4-coumarate + (R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactoyl-CoA
(3) 3-(indol-3-yl)acryloyl-CoA + (R)-3-(indol-3-yl)lactate = 3-(indol-3-yl)acrylate + (R)-3-(indol-3-yl)lactoyl-CoA
Other name(s): FldA; cinnamoyl-CoA:phenyllactate CoA-transferase
Systematic name: 3-(aryl)acryloyl-CoA:(R)-3-(aryl)lactate CoA-transferase
Comments: The enzyme, found in some amino acid-fermenting anaerobic bacteria, participates in the fermentation pathways of L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-tryptophan. It forms a complex with EC 4.2.1.175, (R)-3-(aryl)lactoyl-CoA dehydratase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 289682-21-9
References:
1.  Dickert, S., Pierik, A.J., Linder, D. and Buckel, W. The involvement of coenzyme A esters in the dehydration of (R)-phenyllactate to (E)-cinnamate by Clostridium sporogenes. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 3874–3884. [DOI] [PMID: 10849007]
2.  Dodd, D., Spitzer, M.H., Van Treuren, W., Merrill, B.D., Hryckowian, A.J., Higginbottom, S.K., Le, A., Cowan, T.M., Nolan, G.P., Fischbach, M.A. and Sonnenburg, J.L. A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites. Nature 551 (2017) 648–652. [PMID: 29168502]
[EC 2.8.3.17 created 2003, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.54     
Accepted name: lactoyl-CoA dehydratase
Reaction: (R)-lactoyl-CoA = acryloyl-CoA + H2O
Other name(s): lactoyl coenzyme A dehydratase; lactyl-coenzyme A dehydrase; lactyl CoA dehydratase; acrylyl coenzyme A hydratase; lactoyl-CoA hydro-lyase
Systematic name: (R)-lactoyl-CoA hydro-lyase (acryloyl-CoA-forming)
Comments: A bacterial enzyme that is involved in propanoate fermentation (also known as the acrylate pathway).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9031-12-3
References:
1.  Baldwin, R.L., Wood, W.A. and Emery, R.S. Lactate metabolism by Peptostreptococcus elsdenii: evidence for lactyl coenzyme a dehydrase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 97 (1965) 202–213. [DOI] [PMID: 14292829]
2.  Schweiger, G. and Buckel, W. On the dehydration of (R)-lactate in the fermentation of alanine to propionate by Clostridium propionicum. FEBS Lett. 171 (1984) 79–84. [DOI] [PMID: 6586495]
3.  Kuchta, R.D. and Abeles, R.H. Lactate reduction in Clostridium propionicum. Purification and properties of lactyl-CoA dehydratase. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 13181–13189. [PMID: 4055736]
4.  Kuchta, R.D., Hanson, G.R., Holmquist, B. and Abeles, R.H. Fe-S centers in lactyl-CoA dehydratase. Biochemistry 25 (1986) 7301–7307. [PMID: 3026450]
5.  Hofmeister, A.E. and Buckel, W. (R)-Lactyl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium propionicum. Stereochemistry of the dehydration of (R)-2-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. Eur. J. Biochem. 206 (1992) 547–552. [DOI] [PMID: 1597194]
[EC 4.2.1.54 created 1972, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.57     
Accepted name: isohexenylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase
Reaction: 3-hydroxy-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)glutaryl-CoA = 3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)pent-2-enedioyl-CoA + H2O
Other name(s): 3-hydroxy-3-isohexenylglutaryl-CoA-hydrolase; isohexenylglutaconyl coenzyme A hydratase; β-isohexenylglutaconyl-CoA-hydratase; 3-hydroxy-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)glutaryl-CoA hydro-lyase
Systematic name: 3-hydroxy-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)glutaryl-CoA hydro-lyase [3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)pent-2-enedioyl-CoA-forming]
Comments: Also acts on dimethylacryloyl-CoA and farnesoyl-CoA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37290-84-9
References:
1.  Seubert, W. and Fass, E. Untersuchungen über den bakterielle Abbau von Isoprenoiden. IV. Reinigung und Eigenschaftender β-Isohexenylglutaconyl-CoA-hydratase und β-Hydroxy-β-isohexenylglutaryl-CoA-lyase. Biochem. Z. 341 (1964) 23–34. [PMID: 14339651]
[EC 4.2.1.57 created 1972]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.116     
Accepted name: 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydratase
Reaction: 3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA = acryloyl-CoA + H2O
For diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate cycle, click here and for diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle and dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle in archaea, click here
Glossary: acryloyl-CoA = acrylyl-CoA
3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA = 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA
Other name(s): 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA hydro-lyase; 3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA dehydratase
Systematic name: 3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA hydro-lyase
Comments: Catalyses a step in the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle, an autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway found in some thermoacidophilic archaea [1]. The enzyme from Metallosphaera sedula acts nearly equally as well on (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA but not (R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Berg, I.A., Kockelkorn, D., Buckel, W. and Fuchs, G. A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea. Science 318 (2007) 1782–1786. [DOI] [PMID: 18079405]
2.  Teufel, R., Kung, J.W., Kockelkorn, D., Alber, B.E. and Fuchs, G. 3-hydroxypropionyl-coenzyme A dehydratase and acryloyl-coenzyme A reductase, enzymes of the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle in the Sulfolobales. J. Bacteriol. 191 (2009) 4572–4581. [DOI] [PMID: 19429610]
[EC 4.2.1.116 created 2009]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.155     
Accepted name: (methylthio)acryloyl-CoA hydratase
Reaction: 3-(methylsulfanyl)acryloyl-CoA + 2 H2O = acetaldehyde + methanethiol + CoA + CO2 (overall reaction)
(1a) 3-(methylsulfanyl)acryloyl-CoA + H2O = 3-hydroxy-3-(methylsulfanyl)propanoyl-CoA
(1b) 3-hydroxy-3-(methylsulfanyl)propanoyl-CoA = 3-oxopropanoyl-CoA + methanethiol
(1c) 3-oxopropanoyl-CoA + H2O = 3-oxopropanoate + CoA
(1d) 3-oxopropanoate = acetaldehyde + CO2
Glossary: 3-(methylsulfanyl)acryloyl-CoA = 3-(methylsulfanyl)prop-2-enoyl-CoA
Other name(s): DmdD
Systematic name: 3-(methylsulfanyl)prop-2-enoyl-CoA hydro-lyase (acetaldehyde-forming)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the degradation of 3-(dimethylsulfonio)propanoate, an osmolyte produced by marine phytoplankton. Isolated from the bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tan, D., Crabb, W.M., Whitman, W.B. and Tong, L. Crystal structure of DmdD, a crotonase superfamily enzyme that catalyzes the hydration and hydrolysis of methylthioacryloyl-CoA. PLoS One 8:e63870 (2013). [DOI] [PMID: 23704947]
[EC 4.2.1.155 created 2015]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.175     
Accepted name: (R)-3-(aryl)lactoyl-CoA dehydratase
Reaction: (1) (R)-3-(phenyl)lactoyl-CoA = (E)-cinnamoyl-CoA + H2O
(2) (R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactoyl-CoA = (E)-4-coumaroyl-CoA + H2O
(3) (R)-3-(indol-3-yl)lactoyl-CoA = 3-(indol-3-yl)acryloyl-CoA + H2O
Other name(s): fldBC (gene names); (R)-phenyllactoyl-CoA dehydratase; aryllactyl-CoA dehydratase
Systematic name: (R)-3-(aryl)lactoyl-CoA hydro-lyase
Comments: The enzyme, found in some amino acid-fermenting anaerobic bacteria, participates in the fermentation pathways of L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-tryptophan. It is a heterodimeric protein consisting of the FldB and FldC polypeptides, both of which contain an [4Fe-4S] cluster, and forms a complex with EC 2.8.3.17, 3-(aryl)acryloyl-CoA:(R)-3-(aryl)lactate CoA-transferase (FldA). In order to catalyse the reaction, the enzyme requires one high-energy electron that transiently reduces the electrophilic thiol ester carbonyl of the substrate to a nucleophilic ketyl radical anion, facilitating the elimination of the hydroxyl group. This electron, which is provided by by EC 5.6.1.9, (R)-2-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase activating ATPase, needs to be supplied only once, before the first reaction takes place, as it is regenerated at the end of each reaction cycle. The enzyme acts on (R)-3-(aryl)lactoyl-CoAs produced by FldA, and regenerates the CoA donors used by that enzyme.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Dickert, S., Pierik, A.J., Linder, D. and Buckel, W. The involvement of coenzyme A esters in the dehydration of (R)-phenyllactate to (E)-cinnamate by Clostridium sporogenes. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 3874–3884. [DOI] [PMID: 10849007]
2.  Dickert, S., Pierik, A.J. and Buckel, W. Molecular characterization of phenyllactate dehydratase and its initiator from Clostridium sporogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 44 (2002) 49–60. [PMID: 11967068]
3.  Kim, J., Hetzel, M., Boiangiu, C.D. and Buckel, W. Dehydration of (R)-2-hydroxyacyl-CoA to enoyl-CoA in the fermentation of α-amino acids by anaerobic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 28 (2004) 455–468. [PMID: 15374661]
4.  Kim, J., Darley, D.J., Buckel, W. and Pierik, A.J. An allylic ketyl radical intermediate in clostridial amino-acid fermentation. Nature 452 (2008) 239–242. [PMID: 18337824]
5.  Dodd, D., Spitzer, M.H., Van Treuren, W., Merrill, B.D., Hryckowian, A.J., Higginbottom, S.K., Le, A., Cowan, T.M., Nolan, G.P., Fischbach, M.A. and Sonnenburg, J.L. A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites. Nature 551 (2017) 648–652. [PMID: 29168502]
[EC 4.2.1.175 created 2019]
 
 
EC 4.3.1.6     
Accepted name: β-alanyl-CoA ammonia-lyase
Reaction: β-alanyl-CoA = acryloyl-CoA + NH3
Other name(s): β-alanyl coenzyme A ammonia-lyase
Systematic name: β-alanyl-CoA ammonia-lyase (acryloyl-CoA-forming)
Comments: The reaction has only been demonstrated in the direction of addition of ammonia.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9024-29-7
References:
1.  Stadtman, E.R. The enzymic synthesis of β-alanyl coenzyme A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77 (1955) 5765–5766.
[EC 4.3.1.6 created 1965]
 
 


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