The Enzyme Database

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Transferred entry: long-chain acyl-CoA ω-monooxygenase. Now EC, long-chain acyl-CoA ω-monooxygenase
[EC created 2015, deleted 2018]
Accepted name: long-chain acyl-CoA ω-monooxygenase
Reaction: (1) oleoyl-CoA + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 18-hydroxyoleoyl-CoA + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(2) linoleoyl-CoA + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 18-hydroxylinoleoyl-CoA + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
Other name(s): long-chain acyl-CoA ω-hydroxylase; CYP86A22 (gene name)
Systematic name: long-chain acyl-CoA,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (ω-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. The enzymes from solanaceous plants are involved in the biosynthesis of stigmatic estolide, a lipid-based polyester that forms a major component of the exudate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Han, J., Clement, J.M., Li, J., King, A., Ng, S. and Jaworski, J.G. The cytochrome P450 CYP86A22 is a fatty acyl-CoA ω-hydroxylase essential for estolide synthesis in the stigma of Petunia hybrida. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 3986–3996. [DOI] [PMID: 19940120]
[EC created 2015 as EC, transferred 2018 to EC]
Accepted name: acyl-CoA 6-desaturase
Reaction: (1) linoleoyl-CoA + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = γ-linolenoyl-CoA + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) α-linolenoyl-CoA + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = stearidonoyl-CoA + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Other name(s): Δ6-desaturase; Δ6-fatty acyl-CoA desaturase; Δ6-acyl CoA desaturase; fatty acid Δ6-desaturase; fatty acid 6-desaturase; linoleate desaturase; linoleic desaturase; linoleic acid desaturase; linoleoyl CoA desaturase; linoleoyl-coenzyme A desaturase; long-chain fatty acid Δ6-desaturase; linoleoyl-CoA,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase; linoleoyl-CoA desaturase; FADS2 (gene name)
Systematic name: acyl-CoA,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (6,7 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: An iron protein. The enzyme introduces a cis double bond at carbon 6 of acyl-CoAs. It is a front-end desaturase, introducing the new double bond between a pre-existing double bond and the carboxyl-end of the fatty acid. The human enzyme has a broad substrate range. It also acts on palmitoyl-CoA, generating sapienoyl-CoA [4], and on (9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-tetracosa-9,12,15,18,21-pentaenoyl-CoA, converting it to (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoyl-CoA as part of a pathway that produces docosahexaenoate [3]. The enzyme contains a cytochrome b5 domain that is assumed to act in vivo as the electron donor to the active site of the desaturase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9082-66-0
1.  Okayasu, T., Nagao, M., Ishibashi, T. and Imai, Y. Purification and partial characterization of linoleoyl-CoA desaturase from rat liver microsomes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 206 (1981) 21–28. [DOI] [PMID: 7212717]
2.  Cho, H.P., Nakamura, M.T. and Clarke, S.D. Cloning, expression, and nutritional regulation of the mammalian Δ-6 desaturase. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 471–477. [DOI] [PMID: 9867867]
3.  Sprecher, H. Metabolism of highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1486 (2000) 219–231. [DOI] [PMID: 10903473]
4.  Ge, L., Gordon, J.S., Hsuan, C., Stenn, K. and Prouty, S.M. Identification of the Δ-6 desaturase of human sebaceous glands: expression and enzyme activity. J. Invest. Dermatol. 120 (2003) 707–714. [DOI] [PMID: 12713571]
5.  Domergue, F., Abbadi, A., Zähringer, U., Moreau, H. and Heinz, E. In vivo characterization of the first acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturase from a member of the plant kingdom, the microalga Ostreococcus tauri. Biochem. J. 389 (2005) 483–490. [DOI] [PMID: 15769252]
[EC created 1986 as EC, transferred 2000 to EC, modified 2015]
Accepted name: acyl-CoA (9+3)-desaturase
Reaction: (1) oleoyl-CoA + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = linoleoyl-CoA + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) palmitoleoyl-CoA + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = (9Z,12Z)-hexadeca-9,12-dienoyl-CoA + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: oleoyl-CoA = cis-octadec-9-enoyl-CoA = (9Z)-octadec-9-enoyl-CoA = 18:1 cis-9 = 18:1(n-9)
linoleoyl-CoA = cis,cis-octadeca-9,12-dienoyl-CoA = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyl-CoA = 18:2(n-6)
palmitoleoyl-CoA = (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-CoA
Other name(s): oleoyl-CoA 12-desaturase; Δ12 fatty acid desaturase; Δ126)-desaturase; oleoyl-CoA Δ12 desaturase; Δ12 desaturase; Δ12-desaturase; Δ12-fatty-acid desaturase; acyl-CoA,hydrogen donor:oxygen Δ12-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: acyl-CoA,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (12,13 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: This microsomal enzyme introduces a cis double bond at position 12 of fatty-acyl-CoAs that contain a cis double bond at position 9. When acting on 19:1Δ10 fatty acyl-CoA the enzyme from the pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei introduces the new double bond at position 13, indicating that the new double bond is introduced three carbons from the existing cis double bond, towards the methyl-end of the fatty acid. Requires cytochrome b5 as the electron donor [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Borgeson, C.E., de Renobales, M. and Blomquist, G.J. Characterization of the Δ12 desaturase in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana: the nature of the substrate. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1047 (1990) 135–140. [DOI] [PMID: 2248971]
2.  Lomascolo, A., Dubreucq, E. and Galzy, P. Study of the Δ12-desaturase system of Lipomyces starkeyi. Lipids 31 (1996) 253–259. [DOI] [PMID: 8900454]
3.  Tocher, D.R., Leaver, M.J. and Hodgson, P.A. Recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of fatty acyl desaturases. Prog. Lipid Res. 37 (1998) 73–117. [DOI] [PMID: 9829122]
4.  Petrini, G.A., Altabe, S.G. and Uttaro, A.D. Trypanosoma brucei oleate desaturase may use a cytochrome b5-like domain in another desaturase as an electron donor. Eur. J. Biochem. 271 (2004) 1079–1086. [PMID: 15009186]
[EC created 2008, modified 2015]
Transferred entry: linoleoyl-CoA desaturase. Now EC, linoleoyl-CoA desaturase
[EC created 1986, deleted 2000]
Accepted name: 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol O-acyltransferase
Reaction: acyl-CoA + 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol = CoA + 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-3-acyl-sn-glycerol
Other name(s): 1-hexadecyl-2-acetylglycerol acyltransferase
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol O-acyltransferase
Comments: A number of acyl-CoAs can act as acyl donor; maximum activity is obtained with linoleoyl-CoA. Not identical with EC diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 114704-90-4
1.  Kawasaki, T. and Snyder, F. Synthesis of a novel acetylated neutral lipid related to platelet-activating factor by acyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol acyltransferase in HL-60 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 2593–2596. [PMID: 3422635]
[EC created 1990]

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