The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.329     
Accepted name: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine dehydrogenase
Reaction: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine + NAD(P)+ = 3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inosose + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine = (1R,2S,3S,4R,5S)-5-aminocyclohexane-1,2,3,4-tetrol
Other name(s): neoA (gene name); kanK (gene name, ambiguous); kanE (gene name, ambiguous)
Systematic name: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: Requires zinc. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, neomycin and ribostamycin. cf. EC 1.1.99.38, 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine dehydrogenase (AdoMet-dependent).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kudo, F., Yamamoto, Y., Yokoyama, K., Eguchi, T. and Kakinuma, K. Biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine by three crucial enzymes in Streptomyces fradiae NBRC 12773. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 58 (2005) 766–774. [DOI] [PMID: 16506694]
2.  Nepal, K.K., Oh, T.J. and Sohng, J.K. Heterologous production of paromamine in Streptomyces lividans TK24 using kanamycin biosynthetic genes from Streptomyces kanamyceticus ATCC12853. Mol. Cells 27 (2009) 601–608. [DOI] [PMID: 19466609]
[EC 1.1.1.329 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.43     
Accepted name: paromamine 6′-oxidase
Reaction: paromamine + O2 = 6′-dehydroparomamine + H2O2
Other name(s): btrQ (gene name); neoG (gene name); kanI (gene name); tacB (gene name); neoQ (obsolete gene name)
Systematic name: paromamine:oxygen 6′-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Works in combination with EC 2.6.1.93, neamine transaminase, to replace the 6′-hydroxy group of paromamine with an amino group. The enzyme from the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae also catalyses EC 1.1.3.44, 6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C oxidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Huang, F., Spiteller, D., Koorbanally, N.A., Li, Y., Llewellyn, N.M. and Spencer, J.B. Elaboration of neosamine rings in the biosynthesis of neomycin and butirosin. ChemBioChem 8 (2007) 283–288. [DOI] [PMID: 17206729]
2.  Yu, Y., Hou, X., Ni, X. and Xia, H. Biosynthesis of 3′-deoxy-carbamoylkanamycin C in a Streptomyces tenebrarius mutant strain by tacB gene disruption. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 61 (2008) 63–69. [DOI] [PMID: 18408324]
3.  Clausnitzer, D., Piepersberg, W. and Wehmeier, U.F. The oxidoreductases LivQ and NeoQ are responsible for the different 6′-modifications in the aminoglycosides lividomycin and neomycin. J. Appl. Microbiol. 111 (2011) 642–651. [DOI] [PMID: 21689223]
[EC 1.1.3.43 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.81     
Accepted name: aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + a 2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic = CoA + N3-acetyl-2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic
For diagram of neamine and ribostamycin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: kanamycin
Other name(s): 3-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase; 3-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase; aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferase; acetyl-CoA:2-deoxystreptamine-antibiotic N3′-acetyltransferase (incorrect); aminoglycoside N3′-acetyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:2-deoxystreptamine-antibiotic N3-acetyltransferase
Comments: Different from EC 2.3.1.60 gentamicin 3-N-acetyltransferase. A wide range of antibiotics containing the 2-deoxystreptamine ring can act as acceptors, including gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, neomycin and apramycin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 60120-42-5
References:
1.  Davies, J. and O'Connor, S. Enzymatic modification of aminoglycoside antibiotics: 3-N-Acetyltransferase with broad specificity that determines resistance to the novel aminoglycoside apramycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 14 (1978) 69–72. [PMID: 356726]
[EC 2.3.1.81 created 1984, modified 2015]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.19     
Accepted name: ribostamycin:4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)-(S)-2-hydroxybutanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] 4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)-(S)-2-hydroxybutanoate transferase
Reaction: 4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)-(S)-2-hydroxybutanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + ribostamycin = γ-L-glutamyl-butirosin B + BtrI acyl-carrier protein
Other name(s): btrH (gene name)
Systematic name: ribostamycin:4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)-(S)-2-hydroxybutanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] 4-(γ-L-glutamylamino)-(S)-2-hydroxybutanoate transferase
Comments: The enzyme attaches the side chain of the aminoglycoside antibiotics of the butirosin family. The side chain confers resistance against several aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Llewellyn, N.M., Li, Y. and Spencer, J.B. Biosynthesis of butirosin: transfer and deprotection of the unique amino acid side chain. Chem. Biol. 14 (2007) 379–386. [DOI] [PMID: 17462573]
[EC 2.3.2.19 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.283     
Accepted name: 2-deoxystreptamine N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + 2-deoxystreptamine = UDP + 2′-N-acetylparomamine
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): btrM (gene name); neoD (gene name); kanF (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:2-deoxystreptamine N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Unlike the enzyme from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus, which can also accept UDP-D-glucose [2] (cf. EC 2.4.1.284, 2-deoxystreptamine glucosyltransferase), the enzyme from Bacillus circulans can only accept UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yokoyama, K., Yamamoto, Y., Kudo, F. and Eguchi, T. Involvement of two distinct N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases and a dual-function deacetylase in neomycin biosynthesis. ChemBioChem 9 (2008) 865–869. [DOI] [PMID: 18311744]
2.  Park, J.W., Park, S.R., Nepal, K.K., Han, A.R., Ban, Y.H., Yoo, Y.J., Kim, E.J., Kim, E.M., Kim, D., Sohng, J.K. and Yoon, Y.J. Discovery of parallel pathways of kanamycin biosynthesis allows antibiotic manipulation. Nat. Chem. Biol. 7 (2011) 843–852. [DOI] [PMID: 21983602]
[EC 2.4.1.283 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.285     
Accepted name: UDP-GlcNAc:ribostamycin N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + ribostamycin = UDP + 2′′′-acetyl-6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C
Other name(s): neoK (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:ribostamycin N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Comments: Involved in biosynthesis of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Requires a divalent metal ion, optimally Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yokoyama, K., Yamamoto, Y., Kudo, F. and Eguchi, T. Involvement of two distinct N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases and a dual-function deacetylase in neomycin biosynthesis. ChemBioChem 9 (2008) 865–869. [DOI] [PMID: 18311744]
[EC 2.4.1.285 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.49     
Accepted name: neamine phosphoribosyltransferase
Reaction: neamine + 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate = 5′′-phosphoribostamycin + diphosphate
For diagram of neamine and ribostamycin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: neamine = (2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-5-amino-2-(aminomethyl)-6-{[(1R,2R,3S,4R,6S)-4,6-diamino-2,3-dihydroxycyclohexyl]oxy}oxane-3,4-diol
ribostamycin = (2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-5-amino-2-(aminomethyl)-6-{[(1R,2R,3S,4R,6S)-4,6-diamino-2-{[(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]oxy}oxane-3,4-diol
Other name(s): btrL (gene name); neoM (gene name)
Systematic name: neamine:5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including ribostamycin, neomycin and butirosin. The enzyme requires a divalent metal ion, optimally Mg2+, Ni2+ or Co2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kudo, F., Fujii, T., Kinoshita, S. and Eguchi, T. Unique O-ribosylation in the biosynthesis of butirosin. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15 (2007) 4360–4368. [DOI] [PMID: 17482823]
[EC 2.4.2.49 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.93     
Accepted name: neamine transaminase
Reaction: neamine + 2-oxoglutarate = 6′-dehydroparomamine + L-glutamate
For diagram of neamine and ribostamycin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): glutamate—6′-dehydroparomamine aminotransferase; btrB (gene name); neoN (gene name); kacL (gene name)
Systematic name: neamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Comments: The reaction occurs in vivo in the opposite direction. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin B, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Works in combination with EC 1.1.3.43, paromamine 6-oxidase, to replace the 6′-hydroxy group of paromamine with an amino group. The enzyme from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus can also catalyse EC 2.6.1.94, 2′-deamino-2′-hydroxyneamine transaminase, which leads to production of kanamycin A [3]. The enzyme from the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae can also catalyse EC 2.6.1.95, leading to production of neomycin C [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Huang, F., Spiteller, D., Koorbanally, N.A., Li, Y., Llewellyn, N.M. and Spencer, J.B. Elaboration of neosamine rings in the biosynthesis of neomycin and butirosin. ChemBioChem 8 (2007) 283–288. [DOI] [PMID: 17206729]
2.  Clausnitzer, D., Piepersberg, W. and Wehmeier, U.F. The oxidoreductases LivQ and NeoQ are responsible for the different 6′-modifications in the aminoglycosides lividomycin and neomycin. J. Appl. Microbiol. 111 (2011) 642–651. [DOI] [PMID: 21689223]
3.  Park, J.W., Park, S.R., Nepal, K.K., Han, A.R., Ban, Y.H., Yoo, Y.J., Kim, E.J., Kim, E.M., Kim, D., Sohng, J.K. and Yoon, Y.J. Discovery of parallel pathways of kanamycin biosynthesis allows antibiotic manipulation. Nat. Chem. Biol. 7 (2011) 843–852. [DOI] [PMID: 21983602]
[EC 2.6.1.93 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.100     
Accepted name: L-glutamine:2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase
Reaction: L-glutamine + 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose = 2-oxoglutaramate + 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose = (2S,3R,4S,5R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexan-1-one
Other name(s): btrR (gene name); neoB (gene name); kanB (gene name)
Systematic name: L-glutamine:2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Also catalyses EC 2.6.1.101, L-glutamine:5-amino-2,3,4-trihydroxycyclohexanone aminotransferase [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tamegai, H., Eguchi, T. and Kakinuma, K. First identification of Streptomyces genes involved in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics--genetic and evolutionary analysis of L-glutamine:2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase genes. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 55 (2002) 1016–1018. [PMID: 12546424]
2.  Huang, F., Haydock, S.F., Mironenko, T., Spiteller, D., Li, Y. and Spencer, J.B. The neomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB 8233: characterisation of an aminotransferase involved in the formation of 2-deoxystreptamine. Org. Biomol. Chem. 3 (2005) 1410–1418. [DOI] [PMID: 15827636]
3.  Kudo, F., Yamamoto, Y., Yokoyama, K., Eguchi, T. and Kakinuma, K. Biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine by three crucial enzymes in Streptomyces fradiae NBRC 12773. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 58 (2005) 766–774. [DOI] [PMID: 16506694]
4.  Jnawali, H.N., Subba, B., Liou, K. and Sohng, J.K. Functional characterization of kanB by complementing in engineered Streptomyces fradiae Δneo6::tsr. Biotechnol. Lett. 31 (2009) 869–875. [DOI] [PMID: 19219581]
[EC 2.6.1.100 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.101     
Accepted name: L-glutamine:3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase
Reaction: L-glutamine + 3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inosose = 2-oxoglutaramate + 2-deoxystreptamine
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inosose = (2R,3S,4R,5S)-5-amino-2,3,4-trihydroxycyclohexan-1-one
Systematic name: L-glutamine:5-amino-2,3,4-trihydroxycyclohexanone aminotransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Also catalyses EC 2.6.1.100, L-glutamine:2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose aminotransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Huang, F., Haydock, S.F., Mironenko, T., Spiteller, D., Li, Y. and Spencer, J.B. The neomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB 8233: characterisation of an aminotransferase involved in the formation of 2-deoxystreptamine. Org. Biomol. Chem. 3 (2005) 1410–1418. [DOI] [PMID: 15827636]
2.  Kudo, F., Yamamoto, Y., Yokoyama, K., Eguchi, T. and Kakinuma, K. Biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine by three crucial enzymes in Streptomyces fradiae NBRC 12773. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 58 (2005) 766–774. [DOI] [PMID: 16506694]
[EC 2.6.1.101 created 2013]
 
 
EC 3.1.3.88     
Accepted name: 5′′-phosphoribostamycin phosphatase
Reaction: 5′′-phosphoribostamycin + H2O = ribostamycin + phosphate
For diagram of neamine and ribostamycin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): btrP (gene name); neoI (gene name)
Systematic name: 5′′-phosphoribostamycin phosphohydrolase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including ribostamycin, neomycin and butirosin. No metal is required for activity.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kudo, F., Fujii, T., Kinoshita, S. and Eguchi, T. Unique O-ribosylation in the biosynthesis of butirosin. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15 (2007) 4360–4368. [DOI] [PMID: 17482823]
[EC 3.1.3.88 created 2012]
 
 
EC 3.5.1.112     
Accepted name: 2′-N-acetylparomamine deacetylase
Reaction: 2′-N-acetylparomamine + H2O = paromamine + acetate
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: paromamine = (1R)-O4-(2-amino-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-deoxy-streptamine
Other name(s): btrD (gene name); neoL (gene name); kanN (gene name)
Systematic name: 2′-N-acetylparomamine hydrolase (acetate-forming)
Comments: Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. The enzyme from the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae can also accept 2′′′-acetyl-6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C as substrate, cf. EC 3.5.1.113, 2′′′-acetyl-6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C deacetylase [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Truman, A.W., Huang, F., Llewellyn, N.M. and Spencer, J.B. Characterization of the enzyme BtrD from Bacillus circulans and revision of its functional assignment in the biosynthesis of butirosin. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46 (2007) 1462–1464. [DOI] [PMID: 17226887]
2.  Yokoyama, K., Yamamoto, Y., Kudo, F. and Eguchi, T. Involvement of two distinct N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases and a dual-function deacetylase in neomycin biosynthesis. ChemBioChem 9 (2008) 865–869. [DOI] [PMID: 18311744]
[EC 3.5.1.112 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.124     
Accepted name: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase
Reaction: D-glucose 6-phosphate = 2-deoxy-L-scyllo-inosose + phosphate
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): btrC (gene name); neoC (gene name); kanC (gene name)
Systematic name: D-glucose-6-phosphate phosphate-lyase (2-deoxy-L-scyllo-inosose-forming)
Comments: Requires Co2+ [2]. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Requires an NAD+ cofactor, which is transiently reduced during the reaction [1,4]. The enzyme from the bacterium Bacillus circulans forms a complex with the glutamine amidotransferase subunit of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate synthase (EC 4.3.3.6), which appears to stabilize the complex [6,7].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kudo, F., Yamauchi, N., Suzuki, R. and Kakinuma, K. Kinetic isotope effect and reaction mechanism of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase derived from butirosin-producing Bacillus circulans. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 50 (1997) 424–428. [PMID: 9207913]
2.  Kudo, F., Hosomi, Y., Tamegai, H. and Kakinuma, K. Purification and characterization of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase derived from Bacillus circulans. A crucial carbocyclization enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 52 (1999) 81–88. [PMID: 10344560]
3.  Kudo, F., Tamegai, H., Fujiwara, T., Tagami, U., Hirayama, K. and Kakinuma, K. Molecular cloning of the gene for the key carbocycle-forming enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminocyclitol antibiotics and its comparison with dehydroquinate synthase. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 52 (1999) 559–571. [PMID: 10470681]
4.  Huang, Z., Kakinuma, K. and Eguchi, T. Stereospecificity of hydride transfer in NAD+-catalyzed 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminocyclitol antibiotics. Bioorg. Chem. 33 (2005) 82–89. [DOI] [PMID: 15788164]
5.  Thuy, M.L., Kharel, M.K., Lamichhane, R., Lee, H.C., Suh, J.W., Liou, K. and Sohng, J.K. Expression of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase (kanA) from kanamycin gene cluster in Streptomyces lividans. Biotechnol. Lett. 27 (2005) 465–470. [DOI] [PMID: 15928851]
6.  Tamegai, H., Nango, E., Koike-Takeshita, A., Kudo, F. and Kakinuma, K. Significance of the 20-kDa subunit of heterodimeric 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase for the biosynthesis of butirosin antibiotics in Bacillus circulans. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (2002) 1538–1545. [PMID: 12224638]
7.  Tamegai, H., Sawada, H., Nango, E., Aoki, R., Hirakawa, H., Iino, T. and Eguchi, T. Roles of a 20 kDa protein associated with a carbocycle-forming enzyme involved in aminoglycoside biosynthesis in primary and secondary metabolism. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 74 (2010) 1215–1219. [DOI] [PMID: 20530911]
[EC 4.2.3.124 created 2012]
 
 


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